The Same or Different? Convergence of Skin Gambling and Other Gambling Among Children


Available online – article from the Journal of Gambling Studies via SpringerLink.


Abstract: There is increasing attention on the introduction of gambling-like practices within video games. Termed convergence, this has been explored from the viewpoint of the product, examining similarities in game/gambling mechanics. Understanding convergence of practice is essential to map the epidemiology of these behaviours, especially among children. This paper focuses on the betting of skins within video games to explore co-occurrence with other forms of gambling among British children aged 11–16. Analysing the British Youth Gambling Survey showed that 39% of children who bet on skins in the past month had also gambled on other activities. Betting on skins and other forms of gambling increased with age and concordance of skin gambling/betting was greatest for those who also gambled online. Among gamblers, those who bet skins had higher rates of at-risk and problem gambling than those who did not (23% vs. 8%), though they had a greater breath of gambling involvement. Skin gambling alone was not significantly associated with at-risk gambling when other forms of gambling activity were taken into account. Skin betting and gambling on other activities cluster together, especially where the medium underpinning the behaviours is the same. Children who engage in both skin gambling/betting and other forms of gambling should be considered at-risk for the experience of harms because of their heightened engagement in gambling and gambling-like activities. Access article online

Reference: Wardle, H. (2019). The Same or Different? Convergence of Skin Gambling and Other Gambling Among Children. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09840-5

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Predictors of gambling and problem gambling in Victoria, Australia [open access policy paper]

Abstract: In 2016, the gambling habits of a sample of 3361 adults in the state of Victoria, Australia, were surveyed. It was found that a number of factors that were highly correlated with self-reported gambling frequency and gambling problems were not significant predictors of gambling frequency and problem gambling. The major predictors of gambling frequency were the degree to which family members and peers were perceived to gamble, self-reported approval of gambling, the frequency of discussing gambling offline, and the participant’s Canadian Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score. Age was a significant predictor of gambling frequency for certain types of gambling (e.g. buying lottery tickets). Approximately 91% of the explainable variance in the participant’s PGSI score could be explained by just five predictors: Positive Urgency; Frequency of playing poker machines at pubs, hotels or sporting clubs; Participation in online discussions of betting on gaming tables at casinos; Frequency of gambling on the internet, and Overestimating the chances of winning. Based on these findings, suggestions are made as to how gambling-related harm can be reduced. Access article online

Reference: Howe, P.D.L., Vargas-Sáenz, A., Hulbert, C.A., Boldero, J.M. (2019). Predictors of gambling and problem gambling in Victoria, Australia, PLoS ONE 14(1), e0209277. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209277

National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: findings from a dual-frame omnibus survey

The increase in mobile telephone only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: 1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual-frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer assisted telephone interviewing methodology; 2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and 3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling.

Source: Dowling, N. A., Youssef, G. J., Jackson, A. C., Pennay, D. W., Francis, K. L., Pennay, A., & Lubman, D. I. (2015). National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: findings from a dual-frame omnibus survey. Addiction, n/a–n/a. http://doi.org/10.1111/add.13176