Risk factors associated with gambling involvement among a national sample of African American and European American young adults [open access article]

Abstract: In the current research, we examined the association of key risk and protective factors for gambling involvement from the domains of family environment, conduct problems/delinquency, substance use, and depressive psychopathology in a nationally representative sample. The sample was comprised of 13,291 young adults (ages 18–26; Meanage = 22.8) self-identifying as European American (n=9,939) or African American (n=3,335) who participated in Wave III (n = 15,170) of the restricted-use National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used separate logistic regressions to study participation in specific gambling categories (lottery games, casino-type games, other games). Childhood neglect, physical discipline, and current alcohol use was associated across each of the three gambling categories. Our results also revealed differences between European American and African American subjects. Access full article

By Manik Ahuja, Renee Cunningham-Williams, Kimberly B. Werner, and Kathleen K. Bucholz. (2018). Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism, 6(3).

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Prevalence of youth gambling and potential influence of substance use and other risk factors across 33 European countries: First results from the 2015 ESPAD study [subscription access article]

(2018) Prevalence of youth gambling and potential influence of substance use and other risk factors across 33 European countries: First results from the 2015 ESPAD study. Addiction, doi: 10.1111/add.14275. Full citation

Abstract: Although generally prohibited by national regulations, underage gambling has become popular in Europe, with relevant cross‐country prevalence variability. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of underage gambling in Europe stratified by type of game and on‐line/off‐line mode and to examine the association with individual and family characteristics and substance use. Read more

Gambling Disorder in the DSM-5: Opportunities to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment Especially in Substance Use and Homeless Populations – Open Access

Rash, C. J., & Petry, N. M.

Purpose of review: This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions of the gambling disorder (GD) criteria, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the lowered diagnostic threshold. Recent findings: Studies suggest that the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the lowered diagnostic threshold. Overall, prevalence rates will increase modestly with the lowered threshold in community samples of gamblers. However, increases in GD prevalence rates may be more notable in settings that serve individuals at higher risk for gambling problems (e.g., substance abuse treatment clinics and homeless persons). Summary: Changes to the GD diagnostic criteria may lead to increased recognition of gambling problems, particularly in settings that serve high-risk populations. These changes also may necessitate the training of more clinicians in the delivery of efficacious gambling treatments.

Rash, C. J., & Petry, N. M. (2016). Gambling Disorder in the DSM-5: Opportunities to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment Especially in Substance Use and Homeless Populations. Current Addiction Reports, 1–5. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-016-0112-0

Skewed by Cues? The Motivational Role of Audiovisual Stimuli in Modelling Substance Use and Gambling Disorders.

The similarity between gambling disorder (GD) and drug addiction has recently been recognized at the diagnostic level. Understanding the core cognitive processes involved in these addiction disorders, and in turn their neurobiological mechanisms, remains a research priority due to the enormous benefits such knowledge would have in enabling effective treatment design. Animal models can be highly informative in this regard. Although numerous rodent behavioural paradigms that capture different facets of gambling-like behaviour have recently been developed, the motivational power of cues in biasing individuals towards risky choice has so far received little attention despite the central role played by drug-paired cues in successful laboratory models of chemical dependency. Here, we review some of the comparatively simple paradigms in which reward-paired cues are known to modulate behaviour in rodents, such as sign-tracking, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer and conditioned reinforcement.

Source: Mm, B., M, C., & Ca, W. (2015). Skewed by Cues? The Motivational Role of Audiovisual Stimuli in Modelling Substance Use and Gambling Disorders. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences.

Examining Problematic Gambling and Mental Health in a LGBTI community: A preliminary study | Birch | Medical Research Archives

Philip Birch, Jane Louise Ireland, Clare Ruth Strickland, Johann Kolstee

This preliminary study explored gambling in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual and intersex (LGBTI) community, recognising this as an under researched area. Several factors were considered alongside gambling, namely mental health, substance use, alcohol use and self-control. Participants were recruited to take part in an online survey, with a final sample of 69 obtained. Findings revealed that gambling activities such as pub slot machines/games (58%) were the most common form of gambling, followed by scratch cards (43.5%)…

via Examining Problematic Gambling and Mental Health in a LGBTI community: A preliminary study | Birch | Medical Research Archives.