Barrada, J., Navas, J. F., de Lara, C. M. R., Billieux, J., Devos, G., & Perales, J. (2018, October 14). https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/yb4z2
Abstract: Accurately identifying motives is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor structure underlying a pool of motives for gambling, selected from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire – Financial (GMQ-F), and the Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ), in a sample of regular problem and non-problem gamblers. Additionally, the role of gambling motives in the relationship between root behavioral activation/inhibition systems (BIS/BAS) and gambling severity, frequency, and preferences was explored using structural equation modelling (SEM).
Results show that motives variance was best explained by the existence of four factors: financial motives, social motives, affect regulation, and fun/thrill. Importantly, gambling to regulate affect was directly and independently associated with gambling severity. Only the fun/thrill factor was directly related to frequency of participation in high-arousal, skill-based games, whereas all factors were related to participation in lower-arousal, chance games (with social motives negatively predicting both participation in the latter and total severity). Finally, in the SEM model, measures of BIS/BAS sensitivity were connected to gambling behavior only through gambling motives.
In summary, in contrast with previous, theory-driven factorizations, there seems to be no clear-cut separation between positive and negative reinforcement-driven motives, and an affect regulation factor emerged as the only one directly associated with the risk of gambling disorder. In accordance with this dual composition, the affect regulation motives factor appears to be fueled by both BIS and BAS. Based on mesures of items’ specificity, a shortened Spanish scale (the brief Gambling Motives Inventory, bGMI) is proposed to assess gambling motives in accordance with the observed 4-factor structure Access article preprint
Time-sampling methodology was implemented to examine the prospective associations between affect, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior in individuals diagnosed with a mood disorder. Thirty (9 male, 21 female) adults with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive or bipolar disorder diagnosis who endorsed current gambling and lifetime gambling harm participated in the present study. Participants completed electronic diary entries of their current affective state, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior for 30 consecutive days. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that affect was not a predictor of gambling behavior. Instead, affect predicted the desire to gamble, with high levels of sadness and arousal independently predicting an increased desire to gamble. Desire to gamble predicted actual gambling behavior. There were no differences across diagnostic groups in terms of gambling motivations at baseline; however, during the 30-day period, participants with bipolar disorder endorsed gambling to cope with negative affect more often than did participants with depressive disorder, whereas those with depressive disorder more often endorsed gambling for social reasons or enhancement of positive affect. The present findings provide evidence that negative affect is not directly related to actual gambling behavior, and suggest that affective states rather impact the desire to gamble.
Quilty, L. C., Watson, C., Toneatto, T., & Bagby, R. M. (2016). A Prospective Investigation of Affect, the Desire to Gamble, Gambling Motivations and Gambling Behavior in the Mood Disorders. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-016-9616-8
Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment)…
Source: Kushnir, V., Godinho, A., Hodgins, D. C., Hendershot, C. S., & Cunningham, J. A. (2015). Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9574-6