The association between demographic factors, mental health and gambling behaviour / Catharine Bregazzi [open access thesis]

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the BA Hons in
Psychology at Dublin Business School, School of Arts, Dublin.

Abstract: Gambling behaviour and its impact on mental health is an area of great interest, particularly with the growing rate of gambling participation. The current study aims to extend previous research by investigating differences in Mental Health (Depression, Anxiety and Stress) between Non-Gamblers, In-Person Gamblers and Online Gamblers and the association between Gender, Employment Status, Age and the Likelihood to Gamble. This was investigated through a quantitative, cross sectional survey design. Volunteer participants were made up of 155 individuals (females=101, males=54) and ranged in age from 19 to 74 years old. A single online 92 item survey was used in order to gather data. Analysis showed no significant difference for differences in Mental Health between Non-Gamblers, In-Person Gamblers and Online Gamblers while the association between Gender, Employment Status, Age and the Likelihood to Gamble was partially supported. More research would need to be conducted to further investigate these results. Access thesis online from the Dublin Business School

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Post Traumatic Stress and Gambling Motives [Full text]

Joshua B. Grubbs1, Heather Chapman2, Lauren Milner3, Ian A. Gutierrez2,4, and David F. Bradley2, 5

1Bowling Green State University, 2Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, 3Meridian Behavioral Health Services, 4University of Connecticut, 5Case Western Reserve University

Abstract: Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both crosssectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs about gambling behaviors and unique motivations to gamble. Using two samples—an inpatient sample of U.S. Armed Forces veterans (N = 332) seeking treatment for gambling related problems and a web-sample of gambling adults (N = 881)—we examined these ideas. Results from both samples indicated that post-traumatic stress symptoms were related to positive gambling expectancies and coping motivations for gambling. Additionally, in both samples, positive gambling expectancies were associated with greater coping motivations for gambling. Structural equation models revealed that positive gambling expectancies were consistent predictors of coping motivations for gambling. The findings indicate that post-traumatic stress symptoms are likely associated with unique beliefs about and motivations for gambling behaviors. Given the high comorbidity between symptoms of posttraumatic stress and gambling disorder, these specific relationships are likely of clinical interest in populations seeking treatment for either post-traumatic stress or for problems with gambling behaviors.

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Identifying the Relationship Between Mental Health Symptoms, Problem Behaviors and Gambling Among Adolescents

By Richard, J., & Derevensky, J.

Abstract: Background: Adolescence represents a significant social and psychological developmental period which can lead to the experimentation with multiple highrisk behaviours. Although associations with problem gambling in youth have been established in the research literature, there is lack of consistency in the results and measures used to assess these constructs while considering the impact of gender and age. The current study examined the relationship between mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression), problem behaviours (aggression, delinquency) and gambling among high-school youth.

Method: Questionnaire responses were collected from 6,818 junior and senior high-school students in a mid-western U.S. community.

Results: Statistical analyses revealed that all mental health symptoms and problem behaviors were related to an increase in gambling frequency and risk for a gambling problem. Of note, both aggressive and delinquent/antisocial problems held the highest risk for gambling problems compared to anxiety and depressive problems. Significant differences were also observed in terms of gender and age.

Conclusion: This study contributes to our understanding of mental health issues and risky behaviors among adolescents.

Richard, J., & Derevensky, J. (2017). Identifying the Relationship Between Mental Health Symptoms, Problem Behaviors and Gambling Among Adolescents. Annals of Behavioural Science, 03(02). https://doi.org/10.21767/2471-7975.100030

 

The impact of gambling on depression: New evidence from England and Scotland

By Awaworyi Churchill, S., & Farrell, L.

Abstract: Easy access to gambling outlets and the rise in the number of online gambling sites have led to a substantial increase in the prevalence of gambling among the British population. This increased prevalence is becoming a major problem due to the associated social and economic costs. This study investigates the effects of gambling on depression, using new data on England and Scotland, in a population-based sample. Using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) scales of gambling addiction, we find evidence of a positive association between gambling behaviour and depression. Further, disaggregating the effects by gambling venue, our results suggest that online gambling poses a significant mental health risk compared to gambling in venues or outlets. Thus, we show that the high prevalence of gambling in Britain is associated with emotional and mental health costs.

Awaworyi Churchill, S., & Farrell, L. (2017). The impact of gambling on depression: New evidence from England and Scotland. Economic Modelling. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2017.08.021

 

Social casino gaming and adolescents: Should we be concerned and is regulation in sight?

While gambling has traditionally been viewed as an adult activity, there is a growing body of research that a significant number of adolescents are not only gambling but are experiencing gambling related problems. As ease of access via Internet wagering has increased, so too have some of the concomitant problems. Social casino gambling, often thought of gambling without risking one’s money through the use of virtual currency, has become increasingly popular. The current review examines whether we should be concerned over its widespread use and whether such social games should be regulated.

Source: Derevensky, J. L., & Gainsbury, S. M. (n.d.). Social casino gaming and adolescents: Should we be concerned and is regulation in sight? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2015.08.025

Unhealthy Gambling Amongst New Zealand Secondary School Students: An Exploration of Risk and Protective Factors

Full text available.

This study sought to determine the prevalence of gambling and unhealthy gambling behaviour and describe risk and protective factors associated with these behaviours amongst a nationally representative sample of New Zealand secondary school students (n  = 8,500). Factor analysis and item response theory were used to develop a model to provide a measure of ‘unhealthy gambling’. Logistic regressions and multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between unhealthy gambling behaviour and selected outcomes. Approximately one-quarter (24.2 %) of students had gambled in the last year, and 4.8 % had two or more indicators of unhealthy gambling…

Rossen, F. V., Clark, T., Denny, S. J., Fleming, T. M., Peiris-John, R., Robinson, E., & Lucassen, M. F. (2015). Unhealthy Gambling Amongst New Zealand Secondary School Students: An Exploration of Risk and Protective Factors. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–16.