Anonymous women? A scoping review of the experiences of women in gamblers anonymous (GA) [open-access article].

Abstract: Women are participating in gambling at levels approaching those of men, and although levels of disordered gambling remain lower in women than in men, significant numbers are affected. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a mainstay of help to problem gamblers in many countries. A scoping review was conducted which specifically addressed the experiences of women who attend GA. Within the 25 identified relevant studies, only two reported empirical data on the specific numbers of women attending. A range of barriers still remain to the participation of women in these communities. These include ‘external’ barriers such as lack of referral and signposting, lack of accessible meetings, and costs of travel; ‘internal’ barriers such as shame, stigma, and fear of disclosure; and features of the GA meetings and discourse, such as a climate which is dismissive of women’s experiences. Article available online

Reference: Rogers, J., Landon, J., Sharman, S., & Roberts, A. (2019). Anonymous women? A scoping review of the experiences of women in gamblers anonymous (GA). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.


Gambling among emerging adults: How gender and risk level influence associated problem behaviours [open-access article].

Abstract: This study investigates mental health and substance use problems associated with gambling among Canadian emerging adults (ages 18–20 years). Drawing on a cross-sectional wave of 624 (47.8% male) participants from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults, our findings suggest that among emerging adults, problem gambling should be understood as part of a wider syndrome. The profile of syndromic associations varies with both problem gambling risk level and gender. With respect to risk level, regression models indicate that, relative to no-risk gamblers, lower risk gamblers are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, whereas higher risk gamblers report greater symptoms of depression and anxiety. Males and females present different barriers to recovery: High-risk female gamblers are more likely to rely on escape-avoidance coping mechanisms, whereas their male counterparts tend to lack perceived social support. Given the centrality of these two variables and the lack of literature addressing how they interact, we conclude that further research is needed to understand how gender and gambling severity interact to simultaneously influence gambling-related behaviours among emerging adults. Access online article

Reference: Sanscartier, M.D., Shen, J., & Edgerton, J.D. (2019). Gambling among emerging adults: How gender and risk level influence associated problem behaviours. Journal of Gambling Issues, 41(April), 101-123. Retrieved from

Gender and gambling motivated crime [open access podcast]

By Michelle Malkin, published by the UNLV Center for Gaming Research, run time: 40:52.

In this June 8, 2018 Colloquium Talk, Malkin examines the social, economic, and legal consequences of problem gamblers, with a focus on gender. Starting with an exploration of problem and women’s gambling in history, she analyzes how the approaches to possible criminal consequences of gambling motivated crime challenge traditional criminal justice assumptions about gender and crime. Podcast details and access

A gender perspective on gambling clusters in Sweden using longitudinal data

AIMS – This study describes five groups of gamblers and changes in their gambling involvement and gambling problems over four years with a particular focus on whether gambling problems among men and women develop differently within the five groups. DESIGN – The study sample is a subset of participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). Six different clusters of past-year gambling, based on frequency of participation in the nine most common forms of gambling in Sweden (lotteries, horses, number games, sports games, bingo, poker, slot machines, casino games or TV contests) were identified in Two-Way Cluster Analysis after the first wave of data collection in 2008/09. There were 2,508 individuals identified in EP1 (n=5,012) who then also participated in waves EP2 and EP3 and were selected for the present analysis. METHODS – Statistical analysis was done in SPSS 22.0 using Pearson’s Chi-Square test of Independence (or Fisher’s Exact test when the requirements or expected frequency were not met for Pearson’s Test), Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. P-values below 0.05 were regarded as significant. RESULTS – Gambling remains gendered in Sweden. Even though the clusters are based on gambling activities, there are differences between men and women within the clusters as regards the gambling participation patterns. CONCLUSIONS – Men and women gamble differently, but they may still be equals in their total experience of gambling and in relation to how their gambling problems develop. All differences need to be taken into consideration when preventive actions or messages are created.

Gender, gambling settings and gambling behaviours among undergraduate poker players

A gender divide in gambling is commonly observed among college populations. This study examines whether settings where students gamble on poker mediate the relationship between gender and poker gambling behaviours. Undergraduate poker players, 126 females and 242 males, were randomly sampled from three universities in Montreal, Canada. Three outcomes measuring risky behaviours were considered: severity of gambling problems as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), past-year poker spending and past-year poker debt. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The effect of gender on outcomes was analysed through three putative mediators: gambling on poker in private residences, in public locations or on the Internet…

Source: Kairouz, S., Paradis, C., & Monson, E. (2016). Gender, gambling settings and gambling behaviours among undergraduate poker players. International Gambling Studies, 0(0), 1–13.

Gender Differences in Felt Stigma and Barriers to Help-Seeking for Problem Gambling

Background: Men and women differ in their patterns of help-seeking for health and social problems. For people experiencing problem gambling, feelings of stigma may affect if and when they reach out for help. In this study we examine men’s and women’s perceptions of felt stigma in relation to help-seeking for problematic gambling.

Methods: Using Concept Mapping, we engaged ten men and eighteen women in group activities. We asked men and women about their perceptions of the pleasurable aspects and negative consequences of gambling; they generated a list of four hundred and sixteen statements. These statements were parsed for duplication and for relevance to the study focal question and reduced to seventy-three statements by the research team. We then asked participants to rate their perceptions of how much felt stigma (negative impact on one’s own or family’s reputation) inferred with help-seeking for gambling. We analyzed the data using a gender lens…

Source: Baxter, A., Salmon, C., Dufrense, K., Carasco-Lee, A., & Matheson, F. I. (n.d.). Gender Differences in Felt Stigma and Barriers to Help-Seeking for Problem Gambling. Addictive Behaviors Reports.

Gender Differences in the Temporal Sequencing of Problem Gambling with Other Disorders

Gender differences in the temporal sequencing of problem gambling and other disorders was investigated in a sample of 267 gamblers, recruited from treatment centres. There were 144 men (54 %) with a mean age of 40.58 years and 123 women with a mean age of 48.72 years. All participants completed a survey assessing age of first onset for problem gambling and age of first onset for mood and substance abuse disorders. Results revealed that women tended to experience other disorders before the first onset of problem gambling, whereas men tended to experience other disorders after the first onset of problem gambling…

Source: Haw, J., & Holdsworth, L. (2015). Gender Differences in the Temporal Sequencing of Problem Gambling with Other Disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–13.