A cross-cultural study of gambling disorder: a comparison between women from Brazil and the United States – Open Access

Objective: To perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD) in women from Brazil and the United States, two countries with pronounced social and cultural differences. We hoped to produce insight into the impact of cultural influences on the presentation of GD in women, which may be useful for the development of culturally-sensitive interventions.

Method: We assessed 681 women with GD: 406 from a Brazilian sample and 275 from a U.S. sample. We assessed demographic and gambling behavior variables in addition to co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

Results: Fewer Brazilian participants were Caucasian (73.3 vs. 91.3%; p = 0.022). Also, Brazilian women had lower levels of education (59.9% with high school or less vs. 44.4%; p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a current partner (54.9 vs. 43.4%; p = 0.003). Brazilian gamblers also reported lower urge scores (6.6±4.3 vs. 11.6±2.4; p < 0.001) and higher chasing rates (89.1 vs. 80.0%; p = 0.002). Brazilian gamblers reported higher rates of bingo gambling (19.2 vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001), but lower rates of card game gambling (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001). Finally, Brazilian gamblers were more likely to endorse a history of major depressive disorder (36.9 vs. 24.4%; p = 0.001).

Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for further general cross-cultural research on GD and particularly for studies investigating how gender mediates these differences. Finally, the differences noted in this analysis suggest that the findings of predominantly Anglo-Saxon cultures may not be generalizable to other world populations.


Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling

Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment)…

Source: Kushnir, V., Godinho, A., Hodgins, D. C., Hendershot, C. S., & Cunningham, J. A. (2015). Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9574-6

Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness

Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status–problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women…

Source: Botterill, E., Gill, P. R., McLaren, S., & Gomez, R. (2015). Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9575-5

Gender Differences Among Helpline Callers: Prospective Study of Gambling and Psychosocial Outcomes

Despite the increasing amount of empirical research on gambling helplines (e.g., characteristics, effectiveness), little is known about gender differences on treatment outcomes following contact. The present research addresses this gap in the literature via secondary analysis of an uncontrolled outcome study of New Zealand’s gambling helpline (N = 150). To this end, the present research had three aims; (a) explore gender differences (e.g., demographics, co-morbidities, gambling variables) among helpline callers using psychometrically robust measures, (b) assess whether gender predicts treatment utilization following contact and (c) assess whether systematic gender differences exist on gambling and psychosocial outcomes at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The results revealed that at baseline, women compared to men, described greater problem severity and shorter problem duration, and were more likely to report electronic gaming machines as their most problematic form of gambling…

Source: Kim, H. S., Hodgins, D. C., Bellringer, M., & Abbott, M. (2015). Gender Differences Among Helpline Callers: Prospective Study of Gambling and Psychosocial Outcomes. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–19. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9572-8