The emerging adults gambling survey: study protocol [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]

Abstract
The Emerging Adults Gambling Survey is a longitudinal survey of young adults aged 16-24 living in Great Britain. It aims to explore a range of gambling behaviours and harms among young adults and examine how this changes over time. It is part of a broader project funded by Wellcome into the gambling behaviours of young people and its relationship with technological change. Funding is currently available for two waves of data collection: the first collected in June/August 2019 (n=3549) and the second to be collected in June/August 2020. The second wave of data collection will also obtain information about the immediate impact of coronavirus on gambling behaviours. With a sample size of 3549 for Wave 1, this is one of the largest study of gambling behaviours among young adults to be conducted in Great Britain and is a resource for other researchers to draw on. Data will be deposited in the UK Data Archive upon completion of Wave 2 data collection and analysis. This protocol is intended to support other researchers to use this resource by setting out the study design and methods. Link to the article

Citation: How to cite this article: Wardle H. The Emerging Adults Gambling Survey: study protocol [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review] Wellcome Open Research 2020, 5:102 https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15969.1

Does gambling harm or benefit other industries? A systematic review [open access article]

Abstract
The economic benefits of gambling may be offset by economic harm to other industries. This economic phenomenon, also known as substitution or cannibalization, refers to a new product that diverts consumption and profits from other products or industries. Gambling may displace revenue from other businesses, but economic impact studies on gambling do not consider such shifts between expenditures.
This paper presents a systematic review of the available evidence (N = 118) on whether the introduction or expansion of gambling harms or benefits other business activity. Although the issue has been considered in previous review studies, no industry-level analysis is currently available.
The results show that such an approach is necessary, as the impacts of gambling on other industries appear to depend strongly on the type of industry, as well as on the location and type of gambling. Industries that are negatively affected by gambling include other recreation, retail and merchandise, manufacturing, and agriculture and mining. Alcohol consumption, construction, and the finance, insurance, and real estate industries, as well as other services, appear to be positively affected by the presence of gambling. In other cases, the evidence is either mixed or inconclusive.
These results nevertheless depend strongly on the type of gambling. Destination gambling appears to be more beneficial to other industries than recreational gambling. Overall, the results show that even in cases when gambling does substitute for other industries, the displacement is not complete. The reasons for this and the gaps in the existing evidence and literature are discussed. Link to the article

Citation: Marionneau, V., & Nikkinen, J. (2020). Does gambling harm or benefit other industries? A systematic review. Journal of Gambling Issues. Retrieved from: http://jgi.camh.net/index.php/jgi/article/view/4063/4499

An analysis of consumer protection for gamblers across different online gambling operators in Ireland: A descriptive study [open access via ResearchGate]

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the responsible gambling tools which are available to online gamblers at Irish online gambling websites. The present study used a similar methodology to a recent study carried out on the world’s most popular websites (Bonello and Griffiths Gaming Law Review and Economics, 21, 278–285, 2017), where 50 of the most advertised online gambling websites were evaluated in relation to their responsible gambling (RG) practices.

The present study evaluated 39 gambling websites with either a “.ie” or “.com/ie” domain. Each website was evaluated by checking for a number of RG practices, including presence of a dedicated RG page; age verification; access to gambling account history; the availability of RG tools, such as limit setting facilities and exclusion settings; and links to limit-setting options on the deposit page. Descriptive statistics were then performed on the results from each website. Of the 39 online gambling operators identified, 22 redirected gamblers to a “.com” domain, while 17 operators remained as a “.ie” domain. Thirty-five websites (89.7%) visited had a dedicated RG page.

Responsible gambling features were evaluated and demonstrated to be available in an inconsistent manner across online gambling websites. Irish websites were shown to perform poorly in comparison with non-Irish counterparts in the provision of RG tools. The researchers of the present study are not aware of any similar studies conducted to date in Ireland. Link to the article

Citation: Cooney, Caoimhe & Columb, David & Costa, Joao & Griffiths, Mark & O’Gara, Colin. (2018). An Analysis of Consumer Protection for Gamblers Across Different Online Gambling Operators in Ireland: A Descriptive Study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 10.1007/s11469-018-9968-7.

Responsible gambling: A scoping review [open access article]

Abstract – Gambling markets have drastically expanded over the past 35 years. Pacing this expansion has been the articulation of a governance framework that largely places responsibility for regulating gambling-related harms upon individuals. This framework, often defined with reference to the concept of responsible gambling (RG), has faced significant criticism, emphasizing public health and consumer protection issues. To study both the articulation and critique of the concept of responsible gambling, we conducted a ‘scoping review’ of the literature (Arksey & O’Malley 2005).

Literature was identified through searches on academic databases using a combination of search terms. Articles were independently reviewed by two researchers. Findings indicate 142 publications with a primary focus on responsible gambling,  with a high volume of publications coming from the disciplinary backgrounds of the first authors representing the fields of psychology, business, and psychiatric medicine. Further, publication key themes address topics such as responsible gambling tools and interventions, corporate social responsibility and accountability, responsible gambling concepts and descriptions, and to a lesser extent, critiques of responsible gambling.

The scoping review of the literature related to responsible gambling suggests the need to foster research conditions to invite more critical and interdisciplinary scholarship in an effort to improve public health and consumer protection. Link to the article

Citation: Reynolds, J., Kairouz, S., Ilacqua, S., & French, M. (2020). Responsible Gambling: A Scoping Review. Critical Gambling Studies1(1), 23-39. Retrieved from http://www.criticalgamblingstudies.com/index.php/cgs/article/view/42

Perceived social stigmatisation of gambling disorders and coping with stigma [open access article]

Abstract
Aim: This study concerns perceived social stigmatisation of gambling disorder and its determinants, the self-perceptions of people with gambling disorder (self-stigma) and how they cope with stigma.

Design: In total, 30 interviews with persons with gambling disorder and 60 with professionals were conducted. Selective sampling procedures were employed in the recruitment phase. In the case of professionals, the inclusion criteria were employment in facilities where treatment of gambling disorder is offered, and profession. For people with gambling disorder, the criterion was a diagnosis confirmed by a psychiatrist.

Results: Elements revealed in past research on stigma-creation processes were reflected in respondents’ statements. The type of gambling, the occurrence of negative consequences, the possibility of hiding, personal responsibility, social status and contact with stigmatised populations are perceived determinants of problem gamblers’ stigmatisation. Gambling disorder sufferers experience anxiety associated with the possibility of rejection and a fear related to their condition being revealed to others. Various manifestations of cognitive distancing and hiding were coping mechanisms identified in the study.

Conclusions: People with gambling disorder experience anxiety associated with the possibility of rejection, and they often conceal their disorder, which may hinder their treatment. Therefore the issue of stigma should be addressed in therapy. Link to the article

Citation: Dąbrowska, K. & Wieczorek, Ł. (2020). Perceived social stigmatisation of gambling disorders and coping with stigma. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 1–19.

Financial literacy and gambling behavior: Evidence from Japan [open access article]

Abstract
According to a survey by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare in 2017, 3.6% of Japanese adults—equivalent to about 3.2 million people—have suffered from problem gambling at some point in their lifetime. This study examines the relationship between financial literacy, financial education, and gambling behavior (measured as gambling frequency) among the Japanese population. We hypothesize that financially literate and financially educated people who use their knowledge to make sound financial decisions are less likely to gamble. The data used in this study are from a nationwide survey in Japan from the Preference Parameters Study of Osaka University in 2010 (n=3687). To control for endogeneity bias between financial literacy and gambling behavior, we use the education of respondents’ fathers as an instrumental variable. The results from the probit-instrumental variable model show that financial literacy has a significantly negative relationship with gambling frequency, while financial education has no  significant relationship with gambling frequency. Our findings suggest that problem gambling may be mitigated by promoting financial literacy, but no such conclusion can be drawn for financial education. Link to the article

Citation: Watanapongvanich, S., Binnagan, P., Putthinun, P., Khan, M.S.R., & Kadoya, Y. (2020). Financial literacy and gambling behavior: Evidence from Japan. Hiroshima: Hiroshima University, Department of Economics.

‘Everyone knows grandma’. Pathways to gambling venues in regional Australia [subscription article]

Abstract
In regional Australia, families (including children), attend community venues that contain gambling products, such as electronic gambling machines (EGMs), for a range of non-gambling reasons. However, there is a gap in research that seeks to understand how these venues may become embedded into family social practices. Drawing on Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and cultural capital, this paper aimed to explore factors that influence family decisions to attend venues and perceptions of risk associated with children’s exposure to gambling products. Face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 parents who attended community gambling venues with their children, in New South Wales, Australia. Families attended venues for three key reasons, first because of the influence of others in their social networks, second for regular social activities and third because of structural factors such as a lack of alternative, affordable, family friendly environments in their local area. Despite recognizing the harm associated with EGMs, parents distanced themselves from EGM harm with all parents perceiving venues to be an appropriate space for families. Research in this study indicates that family social practices within venues affect perceptions of risk associated with community gambling venues. The impact of these practices on longer-term health requires more investigation by public health and health promotion researchers and practitioners. Health promotion initiatives should consider identifying alternative sources of support and/or developing alternative social spaces for families in regional communities that do not contain gambling products. Link to the article

Citation: Bestman, A., Thomas, S.L. Randle, M., Pitt, H., Cassidy, R., Daube, M. (2019). ‘Everyone knows grandma’. Pathways to gambling venues in regional Australia, Health Promotion International, , daz120, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz120