Introduction: In the modern age of technology, there is a type of sport that has rapidly risen to the forefront of both the entertainment and legal worlds: eSports. Until recently, the eSports market has been minor and insignificant. A variety of factors have contributed to the rapid rise of the eSports market, including the continued enthusiasm of the millennial generation for electronic entertainment systems. Today, the eSports market has become a multi-million dollar industry, as more governments and corporate entities acknowledge eSports as a legitimate market. Despite the rapid growth in the eSports market, the growth itself is not all positive. Similar to the challenges faced by the traditional sports markets such as football, soccer, and baseball, the eSports industry faces somewhat distinct challenges that are inherently tied to the growth of an industry.
This Note analyzes a few of the similarities and differences between the eSports industry and the traditional sports industry, utilizing the specific context of monetary exploitation, cheating, and gambling. One of the critical issues apparent from a comparison between the eSports industry and the traditional sports industry—through the lens of monetary exploitation, cheating, and gambling—is the lack of a centralized and established eSports governance structure in the United States. The dominant trend towards regulation has been through eSports organizations such as Twitch, ELEAGUE, Electronic Sports League (ESL), World eSports Association (WESA), and eSports Integrity Coalition (ESIC).
On an international level, different countries have addressed the lack of eSports governance and regulation in different ways. In the United States, while the government has applied the pertinent laws and regulations to industries such as the traditional sports industry, the unique characteristics of eSports, such as in-game gambling, have often left the eSports industry in a “legal gray area.” Article available online
Reference: Yun, S.K. (2019). A comparative overview of Esports against traditional sports focused in the legal realm of monetary exploitation, cheating, and gambling. Cardoza Arts & Entertainment, 37(2), 513-551. Retrieved from http://www.cardozoaelj.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/YUN_NOTE-2.docx
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gambling factors related with the gambling problem level of adolescents to provide basic information for the prevention of adolescent gambling problems. The data was drawn from the 2015 Survey on Youth Gambling Problems of the Korea Center on Gambling Problems for Korean students in grades 7–11 (ages 13–17 years) and included 14,011 study subjects (average age 14.9 years, 52.5% male). The lifetime gambling behavior experience was 42.1%, and 24.2% had a gambling behavior experience within the past three months. The past three-month prevalence of problem gambling was 1.1%. The gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling include the presence of nearby gambling facilities, having personal relationships with people that gamble, a higher number of experienced gambling behaviors, male adolescents, and a greater amount of time spent gambling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to identify gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling in Korean adolescents using national data. These findings suggest that gambling prevention efforts must consider not only access to individual adolescents as early intervention, but also environmental strategies such as accessibility regulations and alternative activities. Article available online
Reference: Kang, K., Ok, J.S., Kim, H., Lee, & K.-S. (2019). The gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambler. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 2110.
Abstract: Licensing is currently the most popular option among regulators for controlling gambling operations. However, approximately 20% of operators are still public monopolies. Many forms of gambling (especially lotteries) are government operated even in countries with a licensing system. This creates an inherent conflict of interest, given that government is supposed to protect the wellbeing of its citizenry and to reap the benefits of gambling at the same time. At least in the gambling monopoly, however, addressing the unavoidable harm that results from gambling should be a priority. Industry self-regulation and reliance on “responsible gambling” rely too much on individuals to control their own gambling. It is suggested in this contribution that it is possible to provide more comprehensive consumer protection, recognising both the duty of governments to take care of their own citizens and the fact that industry self-regulation is not enough. Precommitment cards have been tested in various contexts, and have shown promise in terms of providing tools for individuals to restrict their own gambling. However, given the known shortcomings such as allowing the use of other cards that are not one’s own, and other venues, it is clear that in themselves they do not guarantee effective prevention. Personal licensing is therefore explored as a move forward in this literature-based discussion. Although the system may be applicable to other contexts, the focus is on the Nordic countries. Given that the underlying justification for gambling monopolies is to control gambling-related harm, in the cases of Finland and Norway licensing could be combined with loyalty cards introduced by monopoly operators. This would provide a feasible alternative to current practices of responsible gambling. Article available online
Reference: Nikkinen, J. (2018). Is there a need for personal gambling licences? Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2019, 36(2) 108–124. DOI: 10.1177/1455072518811029
Abstract: This study investigates how firms in the gambling industry manage their corporate social disclosures (CSDs) about controversial issues. We performed thematic content analysis of CSDs about responsible gambling, money laundering prevention and environmental protection in the annual reports and stand-alone CSR reports (2009–2016) of four USA-based multinational gambling firms and their four Macao counterparts. This study draws on impression management theory, camouflage theory and corporate integrity theory to examine the gambling firms’ CSDs. We infer that the CSD strategies of gambling firms in Macao and the USA did not serve as vehicles for reflexivity about social responsibility or social responsiveness. Instead, the firms camouflaged legitimacy gaps about sensitive topics by adopting assertive or defensive façades, disclaiming ethical responsibility, curtailing disclosure, or offering zero disclosure. Differences between CSD strategies according to topic, location, time, and reporting channel appear to reflect four factors: pressure to report, availability of good news, whether a firm was assuming ethical responsibility for addressing the topic, and the prospective readership. This study extends our understanding of the contextual and topic-specific factors affecting the quantity and character of CSDs by firms in a contested industry. Article details and access conditions.
Reference: FLeung, T.CH. & Snell, R.S. (2019). Strategies for social and environmental disclosure: The case of multinational gambling companies. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-019-04190-z
Abstract: Emerging adults (ages 18–29) display higher prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling as well as co-occurrence with other risk behaviors compared to other age groups. Consequences of these co-occurring conditions may lead to psychological symptoms, behavioral problems, and socioeconomic and medical costs. Depressive symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and alcohol use are known risk factors for gambling participation and problem gambling. However, scarce research has examined the co-occurrence of those adolescent risk factors and later gambling behaviors in emerging adulthood longitudinally. Using multiple waves of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examined the relationship between earlier depressive symptoms, antisocial behaviors, alcohol use, and gambling behaviors at wave III, and later gambling participation and problem gambling (wave IV) in emerging adults ages 18–29, using multinomial logistic regression. Our findings suggest that earlier antisocial behaviors and gambling behaviors increased later risk for gambling participation and problem gambling. Past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking were associated with the increased risk of gambling participation but not problem gambling. Earlier depressive symptoms decreased the risk of gambling participation later among those who endorsed antisocial behaviors. Emerging adulthood may be a critical developmental period in the development of comorbid conditions of gambling and other risk behaviors. The results contribute evidence supporting the importance of early prevention and intervention for the co-occurrence of gambling and other risk behaviors in emerging adulthood. Article details and access conditions
Reference: Jun, HJ., Sacco, P. & Cunningham-Williams, R.M. (2019). Gambling in emerging adulthood: The role of adolescent depressive symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and alcohol use. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00087-0
Problem gambling is known to be prevalent among prisoners. However, it is not systematically screened and often remains undetected. This pilot study explores prison workers’ (N = 21) knowledge, views, and opinions about problem gambling in two Finnish prisons with a view to improving training and to developing better guidelines for identifying and responding to gambling problems. Four-fifths (81%) of prison workers considered problem gambling a serious issue in Finland. During the past year, more than nine in ten (94.1%) had encountered a prisoner with a gambling problem. Problem gambling was identified in connection with discussions about prisoners’ illegal activity (50%), financial situation (25%), or other problems (25%). Nearly half of the participants felt they did not have adequate training or information about problem gambling and related issues and expressed an interest in continuing education. This pilot study provides important direction for the development of tailored training programs for prison workers. The next step is to increase awareness of gambling programs in a wider national context and to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of training programs. Article available online
Reference: Castrén, S., Lind, K., Järvinen-Tassopoulos, J. et al. (2019). How to support prison workers’ perceived readiness to identify and respond to possible gambling problems: A pilot study from two Finnish prisons. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00083-4
Background: Problem gambling (PG) is a serious public health concern that disproportionately affects people experiencing poverty, homelessness, and multimorbidity including mental health and substance use concerns. Little research has focused on self-help and self-management in gambling recovery, despite evidence that a substantial number of people do not seek formal treatment. This study explored the literature on PG self-management strategies. Self-management was defined as the capacity to manage symptoms, the intervention, health consequences and altered lifestyle that accompanies a chronic health concern.
Methods: We searched 10 databases to identity interdisciplinary articles from the social sciences, allied health professions, nursing and psychology, between 2000 and June 28, 2017. We reviewed records for eligibility and extracted data from relevant articles. Studies were included in the review if they examined PG self-management strategies used by adults (18+) in at least a subset of the sample, and in which PG was confirmed using a validated diagnostic or screening tool.
Results: We conducted a scoping review of studies from 2000 to 2017, identifying 31 articles that met the criteria for full text review from a search strategy that yielded 2662 potential articles. The majority of studies examined self-exclusion (39%), followed by use of workbooks (35%), and money or time limiting strategies (17%). The remaining 8% focused on cognitive, behavioural and coping strategies, stress management, and mindfulness.
Conclusions: Given that a minority of people with gambling concerns seek treatment, that stigma is an enormous barrier to care, and that PG services are scarce and most do not address multimorbidity, it is important to examine the personal self-management of gambling as an alternative to formalized treatment. Article available online
Reference: Matheson, F.L. et al. (2019). The use of self-management strategies for problem gambling: A scoping review. BMC Public Health, 19:445 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6755-8