Exploring the relationship between individual gambling behaviour and accessibility to gambling venues in New Zealand – online open-access thesis

Abstract: Gambling is an important recreational activity in New Zealand, with high levels of participation by the general public. Although gambling activities are an important source of employment and a means of raising funds for various community and sporting purposes, gambling on electronic gambling machines (EGMs), both in casino and non-casino venues are known to be correlated with gambling-related harm, resulting in higher levels of personal, familial, health and societal problems.
After undertaking a review of relevant literature on participation in gambling activities and accessibility to gambling venues, it was found that although studies examining the accessibility of venues with EGMs have been researched to some extent in an overseas context, studies pertaining to such venues in New Zealand have been limited. This study therefore aimed to investigate the link between accessibility to gambling venues with EGMs, including distance-wise proximity to such venues and the number of these venues within a certain distance, and their impact on gambling behaviour of individuals.
Thesis available online via AUT Library

Reference: Bonamis, A.E. (2019). Exploring the relationship between individual gambling behaviour and accessibility to gambling venues in New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand). Retrieved from https://openrepository.aut.ac.nz/handle/10292/12380

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The association between demographic factors, mental health and gambling behaviour / Catharine Bregazzi [open access thesis]

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the BA Hons in
Psychology at Dublin Business School, School of Arts, Dublin.

Abstract: Gambling behaviour and its impact on mental health is an area of great interest, particularly with the growing rate of gambling participation. The current study aims to extend previous research by investigating differences in Mental Health (Depression, Anxiety and Stress) between Non-Gamblers, In-Person Gamblers and Online Gamblers and the association between Gender, Employment Status, Age and the Likelihood to Gamble. This was investigated through a quantitative, cross sectional survey design. Volunteer participants were made up of 155 individuals (females=101, males=54) and ranged in age from 19 to 74 years old. A single online 92 item survey was used in order to gather data. Analysis showed no significant difference for differences in Mental Health between Non-Gamblers, In-Person Gamblers and Online Gamblers while the association between Gender, Employment Status, Age and the Likelihood to Gamble was partially supported. More research would need to be conducted to further investigate these results. Access thesis online from the Dublin Business School

Predictors of gambling-related problems in adult internet gamblers [open access thesis]

Foote, B. (2018). (PhD Thesis, Walden University). Retrieved from scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6833&context=dissertations

Abstract: The use of the Internet to gamble has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Although researchers have suggested that adult Internet gamblers are at high risk for developing a gambling disorder, few studies, overall, have been conducted on the effects of Internet gambling. Furthermore, conflicting research exists regarding what moderates gambling-related problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if age, gender, and emotions prior to the gambling experience are related predictors of Internet problem gambling severity. A retrospective design was used. The pathways model was used to support the belief that emotions felt before an Internet gambling session are associated with the severity of the gambling problem. Data were obtained from adult Internet gamblers who had Internet gambled in the preceding week. One hundred and fifty participants completed an online survey about the emotions they felt before an Internet-gambling session and self-reported the negative consequences of their gambling. The survey contained demographic questions, questions from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (to assess emotions felt before participants’ last Internet gambling session), and questions from the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis were significant, indicating that, as a group, participants’ age, gender, and emotions felt prior to the gambling experience predicted their problem gambling severity. This study can assist with prevention, early intervention, and treatment of adult Internet gamblers. Access thesis online from the University of Walden

The economics of gambling: A collection of essays (open access thesis)

Wheeler, Rhys (2018). (PhD Thesis, Lancaster University). Retrieved from: eprints.lancs.ac.uk/126780/1/2018wheelerphd.pdf

Abstract: Chapter 2 examines the harm associated with being a problem gambler. Problem gambling is conventionally determined by having a score in a questionnaire screen that exceeds some critical value. The UK is fortunate in having large representative sample surveys that embed such questions, and our estimate from the 2010 survey is that several hundred thousand people in the UK could be afflicted by PG. However, existing literature has not evaluated the size of the harm associated with being a problem gambler and this chapter uses this individual level survey data to evaluate the effect of problem gambling on self-reported well-being. Together with a corresponding effect of income on well-being a money-metric of the harm associated with being a problem gambler is derived. An important methodological challenge is that well-being and the harm experienced may be simultaneously determined. Nonetheless, instrumental variable estimates suggest that problem gambling imposes an even larger reduction in well-being than least squares would suggest. The role of gambling expenditures in the transmission between problem gambling and well-being is considered, distinguishing between draw-based games, such as lotto, from scratchcards, and from other forms of gambling.

Chapter 3 investigates the price elasticity of demand for the UK National Lottery – astate-licensed, draw-based lotto game. Little is known about the price elasticity of demand for gambling products because the “price” is typically hard to define. The exception is “lotto” where an economics literature has focused on the response of sales to variations in the prize distribution. Existing literature has used these responses make inferences about the price elasticity of demand, where price is defined as the cost of entry minus the expected winnings. In particular, the variation in the value of the jackpot prize pool, due to rollovers that are a feature of lotto, has been used as an instrument for price. This chapter argues that rollovers do not make valid instruments, because of their correlation with lagged sales, and propose an alternative identification strategy which exploits two arcane features of lotto. Finally, this chapter evaluates whether changes to the design of the UK National Lottery in 2013 and 2015 had a positive effect on the sales figures.

Chapter 4 investigates the extent to which the large, flat-rate tax imposed on the UK National Lottery is regressive. This chapter evaluates a Working-Leser demand model for lotto tickets using both Heckman’s selection model and Cragg’s double hurdle estimator using v household-level data. A unique strategy is employed to identify these two-stage routines by exploiting exogenous differences in consumer preference arising from religious practice. The income elasticity of lottery tickets is found to be significantly lower than previous estimates, suggesting that lottery tickets are inferior goods and that the (high) flat-rate tax imposed on lotto tickets is more regressive than previously thought. Whilst the three chapters are stand-alone essays, they are linked by the use of modern statistical techniques and the use of the best possible data. Together, they address key issues on the economics of gambling and the results are new to their respective literatures and of interest to academics and policy makers alike. Access thesis online

Risk-taking and expenditure in digital roulette: Examining the impact of tailored dynamic information and warnings on gambling attitudes and behaviours [open access thesis]

McGivern, P. R. (2018). University of Derby [PhD Thesis].

Abstract: Digital gambling is the fastest growing form of gambling in the world (Reilly & Smith, 2013a). Technological advancements continually increase access to gambling, which has led to increased social acceptance and uptake (Dragicevic & Tsogas, 2014) with Roulette being among the most popular games played both online and on Electronic Gaming Machines. In response, gambling stakeholders have drawn on the structural characteristics of gambling platforms to develop and improve Responsible Gambling (RG) devices for casual gamblers. Many RG data-tracking systems employ intuitive ‘traffic-light’ metaphors that enable gamblers to monitor their gambling (e.g. Wood & Griffiths, 2008), though uptake of voluntary RG devices is low (Schellinck & Schrans, 2011), leading to calls for mandatory RG systems. Another area that has received considerable RG research focus involves the use of pop-up messages (Auer & Griffiths, 2014). Studies have examined various message content, such as correcting erroneous beliefs, encouraging self-appraisal, gambling cessation, and the provision of personalised feedback. To date, findings have been inconsistent but promising. A shift towards the use of personalised information has become the preferred RG strategy, though message content and timing/frequency requires improvement (Griffiths, 2014). Moreover, warning messages are unable to provide continuous feedback to gamblers. In response to this, and calls for a ‘risk meter’ to improve monitoring of gambling behaviours (Wiebe & Philander, 2013), this thesis tested the impact of a risk meter alongside improved pop-up warning messages as RG devices for within-session roulette gambling. Access thesis online from the University of Derby

Induced moods, warning messages, and gambling behavior [open access thesis]

Bradley, Lindsey. (2018). Induced moods, warning messages, and gambling behavior (Master of Science, Georgia Southern University). Retrieved from: digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/1791

From abstract: The current study sought to bridge a gap between the literature on gambling warning messages and literature on the effect of affect on risky decisionmaking. If a case is to be made for implementing mandatory gambling warning messages, it is important to examine if the effectiveness of warning messages is modulated by affect. Participants were randomly assigned to be induced with either positive or negative affect, and to either receive gambling warning messages or not receive gambling warning messages. It was hypothesized that those induced with positive affect would have higher levels of risk-taking than those induced with negative affect. It was also hypothesized that there would be an interaction effect between affect condition and warning message condition. Results showed that there was not a significant difference in risk-taking behavior between those who received warning messages and those who did not receive warning messages. There was a trend towards a significant difference based on affect condition, in that those induced with negative affect had slightly higher levels of risk-taking than those induced with positive affect. No significant interaction effects were detected. Access thesis online from Georgia Southern University Digital Commons

Tirohanga Taiohi: Taiohi perspectives on gambling among whānau, hapu, iwi and urban Māori communities [open access thesis]

By Ruth Herd. A thesis submitted to Auckland University of Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Health Science (DHSc), July 2018, School of Public Health and Psychosocial Science.

Abstract
In Aotearoa, New Zealand, the cultural milieu has been re-shaped by commercial gambling. Urban taiohi Māori experience diverse realities and for many ‘gambling is a fact of life.’ Commercial gambling was viewed as a good thing by those whose marae or sports clubs were supported by community trusts and Lottery funding. While others view gambling as damaging communities where people are already struggling.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to discuss with taiohi Māori their perspectives on gambling among their whānau, hapū, iwi and communities. The aims of the study were to: (a) to explore the thoughts and views of taiohi (aged between 16 and 24 years of age) about gambling, and (b) to understand these thoughts and views as they relate to preventing and reducing harm from problem gambling among Māori whānau, hapū, iwi and Māori communities. Access thesis from AUT: Tuwhera Open Theses & Dissertations