Responsible gambling in practice: A case study of views and practices of Swedish oriented gambling companies [open access research report]

Abstract: The Swedish gambling market faces a major change in legislation that will allow foreign-based companies to apply for a gambling licence in Sweden. A key element in the new legislation are consumer protection measures. The Swedish gambling market is currently divided between licensed companies and non-Swedish-based companies providing online gambling services without a licence in Sweden. How these companies view their responsibility for preventing gambling-related harm and how prepared they are for the new regulations are important questions regarding the new Swedish gambling market. Access full report

Citation: David Forsström & Jenny Cisneros Örnberg. (2018). Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1–17. DOI: 10.1177/1455072518802492

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The total consumption model applied to gambling: Empirical validity and implications for gambling policy (open access article)

Rossow, I. (2018). Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1-11. doi: 10.1177/1455072518794016

Abstract
Aim: The total consumption model (TCM) originates from studies of the distribution of alcohol consumption and posits that there is a strong association between the total consumption and the prevalence of excessive/harmful consumption in a population. The policy implication of the TCM is that policy measures which effectively lead to a reduction of the total consumption, will most likely also reduce the extent of harmful consumption and related harms. Problem gambling constitutes a public health issue and more insight into problem gambling at the societal level and a better understanding of how public policies may impact on the harm level, are strongly needed. The aim of
this study was to review the literature pertaining to empirical validity of the TCM with regard to gambling behaviour and problem gambling and, on the basis of the literature review, to discuss the policy implications of the TCM. Methods: The study is based on a literature mapping through systematic searches in literature databases, and forward and backward reference searches.

Results: The literature searches identified a total of 12 empirical studies that examined the total consumption model or provided relevant data. All but one of these studies found empirical support for the TCM; that is, a positive association between population gambling mean and prevalence of excessive or problem gambling. Such associations were found both with cross-sectional data and with longitudinal data. Conclusion: There is a small but fairly consistent literature lending empirical support to the total consumption model. An important policy implication is that interventions which are successful in reducing overall gambling are likely also to reduce problem gambling incidence. Access full article

A gender perspective on gambling clusters in Sweden using longitudinal data

AIMS – This study describes five groups of gamblers and changes in their gambling involvement and gambling problems over four years with a particular focus on whether gambling problems among men and women develop differently within the five groups. DESIGN – The study sample is a subset of participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). Six different clusters of past-year gambling, based on frequency of participation in the nine most common forms of gambling in Sweden (lotteries, horses, number games, sports games, bingo, poker, slot machines, casino games or TV contests) were identified in Two-Way Cluster Analysis after the first wave of data collection in 2008/09. There were 2,508 individuals identified in EP1 (n=5,012) who then also participated in waves EP2 and EP3 and were selected for the present analysis. METHODS – Statistical analysis was done in SPSS 22.0 using Pearson’s Chi-Square test of Independence (or Fisher’s Exact test when the requirements or expected frequency were not met for Pearson’s Test), Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. P-values below 0.05 were regarded as significant. RESULTS – Gambling remains gendered in Sweden. Even though the clusters are based on gambling activities, there are differences between men and women within the clusters as regards the gambling participation patterns. CONCLUSIONS – Men and women gamble differently, but they may still be equals in their total experience of gambling and in relation to how their gambling problems develop. All differences need to be taken into consideration when preventive actions or messages are created.

At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

AIMS – The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking) by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN – Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822) were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484). The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2) was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS – The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74) for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56) for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26) for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23) for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12) for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24) for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39) for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34) for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS – Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

Changes in minors’ gambling on slot machines in Finland after the raising of the minimum legal gambling age from 15 to 18 years: A repeated cross-sectional study

AIM – The legal gambling age in Finland was raised from 15 to 18 years in 2010, but slot machines were given a transition period that ended with the full law coming into effect on 1 July 2011. The widespread accessibility of slot machines and their popularity among youth led us to consider how age limit was enforced in the Finnish gambling monopoly system and to analyse how underage gambling on slot machines changed after the raising of the minimum age.

METHODS – Two nationwide cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 (12–18-year-olds; N=8101; average response rate 42%). The main measure was self-reported six-month prevalence of slot machine use overall and by venue (shops; kiosks; petrol stations; restaurants/cafés; ship travels to Sweden/Estonia; other). Changes from 2011 to 2013 were tested by using the χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. As a reference group only, 18-year-olds were analysed, as they were of legal age to gamble.

Source: Raisamo, S., Warpenius, K., & Rimpelä, A. (2015). Changes in minors’ gambling on slot machines in Finland after the raising of the minimum legal gambling age from 15 to 18 years: A repeated cross-sectional study. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 32(6), 579–590.

Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences

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AIM – The aim is to examine significant life events and social connections that encourage some women to gamble. Specifically, how do these events and connections described as important for women who develop gambling-related problems differ for women who remain recreational gamblers? DESIGN – 20 women who were electronic gaming machine (EGMs, poker machines, slots) players were interviewed using a brief interview guide. They also completed the nine question Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI)…

Source: Nuske, E. M., Holdsworth, L., & Breen, H. (2015). Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 32, 5–6.

Justifications of national gambling policies in France and Finland : Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

AIMS – The principles of free trade and free circulation of services within the European Union have created pressures to make the strictly controlled European gambling markets more open. According to the Court of Justice of the European Union, restrictions on gambling are only allowed if they are justified in admissible terms of consumer protection, prevention of criminal activity and protection of public order. This study compares the gambling laws of two European societies, France and Finland, to analyse how their legal frames of gambling have been adjusted to these principles…

via Justifications of national gambling policies in France and Finland : Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.