Gender comparison of online and land-based gamblers from a nationally representative sample: Does gambling online pose elevated risk?

Robert Edgren, Sari Castrén, Hannu Alho, Anne H. Salonen.

The expansion of online gambling opportunities calls for better comprehension of online gambling, including relevant gender specific correlates. This study compared online and land-based gamblers among males and females separately, utilizing a nationally representative Finnish survey sample of 18-74 year olds. Online gamblers were younger than land-based gamblers and had full-time working status more often than land-based gamblers, with partial indication of land-based gamblers’ monthly income being lower. Online gambling was associated with participation in computer or video gaming more strongly than with land-based gambling. Results show that the strongest predictors of online gambling common to both genders were younger age, computer gaming and gambling on multiple gambling types. Risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were not associated to gambling mode when controlling for other factors. Results indicate that particularly for females online gambling may be related to higher relative expenditure and at-risk and problem gambling, providing implications for tailored interventions. The continued study of subgroups of gamblers is necessary to comprehensively understand the altering gambling milieu.


Is gambling involvement a confounding variable for the relationship between Internet gambling and gambling problem severity?

Stéphanie Baggio, Marc Dupuis, André Berchtold, Stanislas Spilka, Olivier Simon, Joseph Studer.

Internet gamblers have more problems gambling than land-based gamblers, but recent studies showed that Internet gamblers are involved in a higher number of gambling activities, which may confound the relationship between Internet gambling and gambling problems. The present study aimed to test whether the relationship between Internet gambling and gambling problems persisted when including variables related to gambling involvement as predictors, namely time spent gambling and diversity of gambling formats. Data from a large sample of French adolescents (n = 9910) were used. Associations between disordered gambling/money spent gambling with Internet gambling were performed using generalized linear models, not controlling and controlling for diversity of gambling formats and time spent gambling. The results showed that Internet gamblers had significantly more problems than land-based gamblers. The relationship decreased when diversity of gambling formats and time spent gambling were controlled separately, and became non-significant when they were both included in the model. To conclude, time spent gambling and diversity of gambling formats rather than Internet gambling should be considered a detrimental gambling behavior. They seemed to capture different aspects of gambling patterns. This study was a step forward in changing the conceptual model of problem gambling, with gambling involvement as a main variable.

Migration from social casino games to gambling: Motivations and characteristics of gamers who gamble – Open Access

The increasing convergence of the gambling and gaming industries has raised questions about the extent to which social casino game play may influence gambling. This study aimed to examine the relationship between social casino gaming and gambling through an online survey of 521 adults who played social casino games in the previous 12 months. Most social casino game users (71.2%) reported that these games had no impact on how much they gambled. However, 9.6% reported that their gambling overall had increased and 19.4% reported that they had gambled for money as a direct result of these games. Gambling as a direct result of social casino games was more common among males, younger users, those with higher levels of problem gambling severity and more involved social casino game users in terms of game play frequency and in-game payments. The most commonly reported reason for gambling as a result of playing social casino games was to win real money. As social casino games increased gambling for some users, this suggests that simulated gambling may influence actual gambling expenditure particularly amongst those already vulnerable to or affected by gambling problems.

Gambling content in Facebook games: A common phenomenon?

Some Facebook games are offered by developers who also offer gambling games, possibly indicating that gambling content (GC) could be found in their Facebook games. This study measures the presence of GC in Facebook games and documents their presentation. It verifies whether GC is more present in games offered by developers offering gambling games as well. The 100 most popular Facebook games were played for 10 min and recorded for content analysis purposes. GC was detected and classified into standard gambling simulation, non-standard gambling simulation, and gambling references…

Source: Jacques, C., Fortin-Guichard, D., Bergeron, P.-Y., Boudreault, C., Lévesque, D., & Giroux, I. (2016). Gambling content in Facebook games: A common phenomenon? Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 48–53.

The efficacy of a web-based gambling intervention program for high school students: A preliminary randomized study

Early onset in adolescent gambling involvement can be a precipitator of later gambling problems. The aim of the present study was to test the preliminary efficacy of a web-based gambling intervention program for students within a high school-based setting. Students attending a high school in Italy (N = 168) participated in the present study (58% male – age, M = 15.01; SD = 0.60). Twelve classes were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: intervention (N = 6; 95 students) and control group (N = 6; 73 students). Both groups received personalized feedback and then the intervention group received online training (interactive activities) for three weeks. At a two-month follow-up, students in the intervention group reported a reduction in gambling problems relative to those in the control group. However, there were no differences in gambling frequency, gambling expenditure, and attitudes toward the profitability of gambling between the two groups…

Source: Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M. D., Marino, C., Chieco, F., Disperati, F., … Santinello, M. (2016). The efficacy of a web-based gambling intervention program for high school students: A preliminary randomized study. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, Part B, 946–954.

Is all Internet gambling equally problematic? Considering the relationship between mode of access and gambling problems

Concerns exist that Internet gambling may increase rates of gambling harms, yet research to date has found inconsistent results. Internet gamblers are a heterogeneous group and considering this population as a whole may miss important differences between gamblers. The differential relationship of using mobile and other devices for gambling online has not been considered as compared to the use of computers. The true relationship of Internet gambling on related problems and differences between preferred modes for accessing online gambling may be obscured by confounding personal and behavioural factors. This paper thus uses the innovative approach of propensity score matching to estimate the consequence of gambling offline, or online through a computer, as compared to mobile or other supplementary devices by accounting for confounding effects of difference among groups of Australian gamblers…

Source: Gainsbury, S., Liu, Y., Russell, A. M. T., & Teichert, T. (2016). Is all Internet gambling equally problematic? Considering the relationship between mode of access and gambling problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, Part B, 717–728.