Gambling in prisons – A nationwide Polish study of sentenced men [open access article]

Despite the abandonment of the criterion of committing illegal acts in the diagnosis of pathological gambling in fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), research confirms the significant link between crime, gambling, and gambling addiction.

In Poland, this connection is observed by psychologists working in the prison service, who simultaneously report the need for more structured interactions that would solve gambling problems among prisoners. The lack of any data on the involvement of persons committing crimes in gambling in Poland formed the basis for the implementation of a survey of gambling behaviour and gambling problems among male offenders in Polish correctional institutions.

A total of 1,219 sentenced men took part in the study. The research tool included 75 questions, including queries from the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Based on SOGS, the prevalence rate of severe problem gambling was 29.4% over the lifetimes of the prisoners. As many as 13.1% of respondents admitted to having gambled in prison. This activity usually involved cards, bets or dice. More than 74% of incarcerated men who gambled in prison met the criteria for pathological gambling. Prisoners who gambled more in prison than at liberty made up 27.7%.

As many as 69.3% of respondents declared that while in prison, they had met fellow convicts experiencing problems because of gambling. The study shows that criminals continue gambling after detention, especially those who are problem gamblers, an overall finding which implies the need to implement preventive and therapeutic interventions in correctional institutions. Link to the article

Citation: Lelonek-Kuleta, B. (2020). Gambling in prisons – A nationwide Polish study of sentenced men. Journal of Gambling Issues, 44. Retrieved from Google Scholar.

On the limits and challenges of public health approaches in addressing gambling-related problems [subscription access article]

Many governments around the world have adopted a public health (PH) approach as a framework to minimise, reduce or prevent gambling-related harm. In principle, this appears very sensible given the success of PH approaches in other areas of society: in disease control, nutrition, physical exercise and reductions in smoking. In this paper, we examine the challenges that are faced in applying PH principles to gambling. We argue that gambling is a difficult activity to address because of the highly skewed distribution of severity that makes PH interventions seem less relevant for the majority and difficult to apply to the complex minority. In our view, gambling harm can really only be reduced by changing the behaviour of individuals, and this objective is very much informed by the principles and practices of ‘individual-focused disciplines’ including psychology, social work and the medical sciences. Greater evidence and evaluation are needed to demonstrate how the ‘whole of population’ approaches advocated by PH are superior than ecological, individual-focused or responsible gambling approaches to reduce gambling-related harm. Article details and access conditions

Citation: Delfabbro, P., King, D.L. On the Limits and Challenges of Public Health Approaches in Addressing Gambling-Related Problems. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 18, 844–859 (2020).

Pushing the limits of increased casino advantage on slots: An examination of performance effects and customer reactions [subscription access article]

This field study examined performance data from reel slot games located in two casinos. The paired design incorporated games that appeared identical to the players but featured substantially different, yet concealed, pars (i.e., prices). The results revealed significantly elevated revenues for the high-par games, despite egregious price hikes, while also failing to provide compelling evidence of rational play migration to the low-par games. The latter result suggested that frequently visiting players were not able to detect differences in the pars of games, even over lengthy sample periods. These outcomes were produced by the greatest par gaps of any paired-design study. These expanded gaps also generated the greatest revenue gains within this research stream. Increasing pars may represent a rare opportunity for operators to increase revenues, without concern for eventual brand damage or loss of market share. Limitations regarding the current uses of reel pars are also revealed. Article details and access conditions

Citation: Lucas, A.F., & Spilde, K. (2020). Pushing the Limits of Increased Casino Advantage on Slots: An Examination of Performance Effects and Customer Reactions. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly

The emerging adults gambling survey: study protocol [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]

The Emerging Adults Gambling Survey is a longitudinal survey of young adults aged 16-24 living in Great Britain. It aims to explore a range of gambling behaviours and harms among young adults and examine how this changes over time. It is part of a broader project funded by Wellcome into the gambling behaviours of young people and its relationship with technological change. Funding is currently available for two waves of data collection: the first collected in June/August 2019 (n=3549) and the second to be collected in June/August 2020. The second wave of data collection will also obtain information about the immediate impact of coronavirus on gambling behaviours. With a sample size of 3549 for Wave 1, this is one of the largest study of gambling behaviours among young adults to be conducted in Great Britain and is a resource for other researchers to draw on. Data will be deposited in the UK Data Archive upon completion of Wave 2 data collection and analysis. This protocol is intended to support other researchers to use this resource by setting out the study design and methods. Link to the article

Citation: How to cite this article: Wardle H. The Emerging Adults Gambling Survey: study protocol [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review] Wellcome Open Research 2020, 5:102

Gamtest: Psychometric evaluation in a low-gambling general population [open access article]

Instruments that investigate different aspects of gambling activities are needed to distinguish negative consequences. Because gambling is a complex activity that occurs both offline and online, different questionnaires are necessary for screening
and risk classification. GamTest, an instrument used by several gambling companies, was designed to cover different aspects of gambling: money and time spent, as well as social, financial, and emotional consequences.

This study explores GamTest’s psychometric properties in a general population. A total of 2,234 Swedish respondents completed an online survey containing demographic questions, the questionnaire (GamTest), and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed and GamTest’s reliability and validity tested. The confirmatory factor analysis yielded an inclusive fit. The internal consistency (omega) for the five factors was high (.79–.91), indicating good reliability, and a high positive correlation with the PGSI supported the validity of the GamTest.

The inclusive fit of the confirmatory factor analysis can be explained by the low endorsement of negative consequences of gambling in the sample. However, GamTest seems to have good reliability and validity. The utility of GamTest is discussed in relation to its psychometric properties and its use in the responsible gambling tool Playscan. Link to the article

Citation: Forsström, D., Philip Lindner, P., Jansson-Fröjmark, M., Hesser, H., & Carlbring, P. (2020). Gamtest: Psychometric evaluation in a low-gambling general population. Journal of Gambling Issues. Retrieved from

The personality profile of chronic alcohol dependent patients with comorbid gambling disorder symptoms [open access article]

Background and aims: The importance of personality characteristics in the diagnostics and treatment of gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is often highlighted in scientific literature. This study aimed to test predictions about the associations of temperament and character in chronic AUD patients with comorbid GD symptoms and without them.

Methods: Chronic AUD patients enrolled from an inpatient clinic were divided in two groups based on cluster analysis, AUD patients with (AUD+GD groups: N = 30) and without (AUD groups: N = 68) GD symptoms. Severity of GD symptoms and personality dimensions (Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory Revised, TCI-R) were assessed. Associations of tested variables were analysed with analysis of covariance, one-sample and independent sample t-tests.

Results: GD symptoms proved to be a clustering factor in terms of personality, where AUD+GD groups expressed a more maladaptive personality profile. Compared to Hungarian normative TCI-R scores, both patient groups showed elevated levels of Harm Avoidance and Novelty Seeking with lower scores of Self-directedness, while the AUD+GD group scored lower on Persistence and Cooperation as well. The AUD+GD group reported significantly higher levels of Harm Avoidance, with lower scores of Reward Dependence compared to the AUD group.

Discussion: Comorbid GD symptom severity is an important factor in chronic AUD, where AUD patients with comorbid GD symptoms exhibited more maladaptive personality constellation than singular AUD patients. These emphasize the need of special attention for comorbid GD symptoms in AUD, since treatment recommendations and prognosis for them may also differ. Link to the article

Citation: I. Kovács, I.K. Pribék, I. Demeter, et al., The personality profile of chronic alcohol dependent patients with comorbid gambling disorder symptoms, Comprehensive Psychiatry (2020),

A study on women’s casino security employees 여성 카지노 시큐리티 종사원에 관한 연구 [open access article in Korean]

In casinos, security personnel who manage the safety of customers and employees play a very important role. In particular, there is a high percentage of female employees in casinos, and because the ratio of female and male employees is similar, the probability of female customers or female employees experiencing accidents may be similar to or higher than that of males. Women’s security agents who handle women’s case accidents can provide female customers and employees with a security service that only women can do. However, most of the agents doing security work at casinos are male, and the proportion of women is very low. Therefore, this research is about employees who are currently working as women in casinos and conducted qualitative research to find out about various experiences they experienced while working in the casino.

A total of five study participants were interviewed three times to analyze and categorize the data collected. The first question is the professor’s recommendation, his personal information search and his acquaintance’s recommendation. The second question, the factors behind the necessary skills at work, are various athletic skills, good physical conditions and foreign language skills. In the third question, the satisfaction factors of the task are the scarcity value of the work, the satisfaction of the pay, the suitability of the individual and the expectation of the future, and the unsatisfactory factors of the work are the risk of the work, the stress on the customer, the discrimination against the sex, the gaze around, the tiredness of the shift work. In the fourth question, factors on the need for female casino security agents are providing differentiated services to female customers, protecting female employees and providing opportunities for women in related majors.

The results of this study were interviewed by an expert of more than 20 years in the casino security business, and female casino security agents said that since it is a necessary requirement, they should seek a direction for development through institutional and cognitive improvement. Link to the article

Citation: Kim, H. (2020). A study on women’s casino security employees. Korean Security Science Review, 62, 135–158.