Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gambling factors related with the gambling problem level of adolescents to provide basic information for the prevention of adolescent gambling problems. The data was drawn from the 2015 Survey on Youth Gambling Problems of the Korea Center on Gambling Problems for Korean students in grades 7–11 (ages 13–17 years) and included 14,011 study subjects (average age 14.9 years, 52.5% male). The lifetime gambling behavior experience was 42.1%, and 24.2% had a gambling behavior experience within the past three months. The past three-month prevalence of problem gambling was 1.1%. The gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling include the presence of nearby gambling facilities, having personal relationships with people that gamble, a higher number of experienced gambling behaviors, male adolescents, and a greater amount of time spent gambling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to identify gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling in Korean adolescents using national data. These findings suggest that gambling prevention efforts must consider not only access to individual adolescents as early intervention, but also environmental strategies such as accessibility regulations and alternative activities. Article available online
Reference: Kang, K., Ok, J.S., Kim, H., Lee, & K.-S. (2019). The gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambler. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 2110.
Abstract: Women are participating in gambling at levels approaching those of men, and although levels of disordered gambling remain lower in women than in men, significant numbers are affected. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a mainstay of help to problem gamblers in many countries. A scoping review was conducted which specifically addressed the experiences of women who attend GA. Within the 25 identified relevant studies, only two reported empirical data on the specific numbers of women attending. A range of barriers still remain to the participation of women in these communities. These include ‘external’ barriers such as lack of referral and signposting, lack of accessible meetings, and costs of travel; ‘internal’ barriers such as shame, stigma, and fear of disclosure; and features of the GA meetings and discourse, such as a climate which is dismissive of women’s experiences. Article available online
Reference: Rogers, J., Landon, J., Sharman, S., & Roberts, A. (2019). Anonymous women? A scoping review of the experiences of women in gamblers anonymous (GA). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00101-5
Description: There are now signs that, after decades of phenomenal growth, the era of unrestrained gambling liberalisation may be coming to an end. However, the power of The Gambling Establishment is formidable and it will certainly fight back. Drawing on research and policy examples from around the world, the book provides a unified understanding of the dangerousness of modern commercialised gambling, how its expansion has been deliberately or inadvertently supported, and how the backlash is now occurring.
The term Gambling Establishment is defined to include the industry which sells gambling, governments which support it, and a wider network of organisations and individuals who have subscribed to the ‘responsible gambling’ Establishment discourse. Topics covered include: the psychology of how gambling is now being advertised and promoted and the way it is designed to deceive gamblers about their chances of winning; the increased exposure of young people to gambling and the alignment of gambling with sport; understanding the experience of gambling addiction; the various public health harms of gambling at individual, family, community and societal levels; and how evidence has been used to resist change. The book’s final chapter offers the author’s manifesto for policy change, designed with Britain particularly in mind but likely to have relevance elsewhere.
With detailed examples given of the ways a number of countries are responding to these threats to their citizens’ health, this book will be of global interest for academics, researchers, policymakers and service providers in the field of gambling or other addictions specifically, and public health and social policy generally. Book details
Contents: Introduction 01. The new backlash against the growth of commercial gambling 02. The Gambling Establishment: the industry and its allies inside and outside government 03. The Establishment discourse: five ways we were told how to think about gambling 04. How Gambling is forcibly advertised and sold in the modern era 05. Is modern gambling fraudulent? How players are deceived about the chances of winning 06. Understanding gambling addiction: bringing personal experience and theory together 07. Gambling’s harm to individuals, families, communities and society 08. How the Gambling Establishment has used evidence to support Its position 09. Resisting the power of the Gambling Establishment: A Manifesto for Change.
This report presents annual estimates of gambling behaviour in Great Britain in 2018, and constitutes the Gambling Commission’s regular tracker of gambling participation. The datasets have been gathered via a combination of telephone and online surveys with people aged 16+, conducted independently by Populus. The datasets cover the past four week participation rate, online gambling behaviour, consumer awareness of gambling management tools, and perceptions and attitudes towards gambling. Data on rates of problem, moderate and low-risk gambling are taken from our latest Combined Health Survey 2016 (which incorporates the Health Survey for England, the Scottish Health Survey and the Welsh Problem Gambling Survey) due to its use of the full PGSI (Problem Gambling Severity Index) and DSM-IV screens. We have also included data from the telephone survey for 2018 for reference. Report available online
Reference: Gambling Commission. (2019). Gambling participation in 2018: behaviour, awareness and attitudes Annual report. Retrieved from https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/research/business-of-ageing/index.html
Abstract: In-play gambling is a recent innovation allowing gambling to occur during the course of a sporting event, rather than merely before play commences. For years, in-play gambling has been marketed in the UK via adverts displaying current betting odds during breaks in televised soccer, e.g., “England to score in the first 20 minutes, 4-to-1.” Previous research shows that this so-called “live-odds” advertising is skewed toward complex events with high profit margins which consumers do not evaluate rationally. Recent UK regulatory guidance on “impulsiveness and urgency,” aiming to enhance consumer protection around gambling advertising, states that gambling advertising should not “unduly pressure the audience to gamble.” We explored the frequency and content of live-odds advertising over the 2018 soccer World Cup, as a case study of the first major televised sporting event after the publication of this UK regulatory guidance. In total, 69 live-odds adverts were shown over 32 matches (M = 2.16 per-match), by five bookmakers. We identified two key features that made advertised bets appear more urgent than necessary. First, 39.1% of bets could be determined before the match ended. Second, 24.6% of bets showed a recent improvement in odds, including a 15.9% subset of “flash odds,” which were limited in both time and quantity. Advertised odds were again skewed toward complex events, with a qualitative trend toward greater complexity than at the previous World Cup. We believe that consumers should be protected against the targeted content of gambling advertising. Article available online
Reference: Newall, P.W.S., Thobhani, A., Walasek, L., & Meyer, C. (2019). Live-odds gambling advertising and consumer protection. PLoS ONE, 14(6): e0216876. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216876
Background and aims: Chasing refers to continued gambling in an attempt to recoup previous losses and is one of the diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. However, research on the topic is still in its infancy. This study investigated whether chasing behavior mediates the relationship between time perspective and gambling severity.
Methods: Nonproblem gamblers (N = 26) and problem gamblers (N = 66) with the same demographic features (age and gender) were compared on the Consideration of Future Consequences and a computerized task assessing chasing. The Italian South Oaks Gambling Screen was used to discriminate participants in terms of gambling severity.
Results: Significant correlations were found relating to gambling severity, chasing, and time perspective. More specifically, the results showed that problem gamblers reported more chasing and a foreshortened time horizon. Chasers, compared to nonchasers, were found to be more oriented to the present. Regression analysis showed that male gender, present-oriented time perspective, and chasing were good predictors of gambling severity. Finally, to clarify if present orientation was on the path from chasing to gambling severity or if chasing was the mediator of the impact of present orientation on gambling severity, a path analysis was performed. The results indicated that present orientation had a direct effect on gambling severity and mediated the relationship between chasing and gambling involvement.
Conclusion: The findings support the exacerbating role of chasing in gambling disorder and for the first time show the relationship of time perspective, chasing, and gambling severity among adults. Article available online
Reference: Ciccarelli, M., Cosenza, M., Griffiths, M.D., D’Olimpio. F., & Nigro, G. (2019). The interplay between chasing behavior, time perspective, and gambling severity: An experimental study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. DOI: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.29
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that gambling cues (e.g., flashing lights on poker-machines) can trigger an urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers. However, the psychological mechanisms that promote the urge to gamble remain poorly understood. The present study explored whether reward responsiveness predicted urge to gamble and positive affect, and whether cue-reactive rationality, volitional control and imagery mediated these relationships. Ninety-three (45% male and 55% female) Australian regular poker-machine gamblers aged between 18 and 77 participated in an online cue-reactivity experiment. Participants initially completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and Reward Responsiveness scale. Subsequently, at three time points (i.e., baseline, directly after a neutral cue and directly after a gambling cue) participants completed the rationality, volitional control and imagery subscales of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory and two visual analogue scales that measured urge to gamble and positive affect. Analyses indicated that gambling cues triggered statistically significant increases in both urge to gamble and positive affect and these variables were statistically significantly positively correlated with reward responsiveness. Furthermore, only cue-reactive imagery mediated the relationships between reward responsiveness and the two outcome variables (i.e., cue-reactive urge to gamble and positive affect). These findings highlight the potential importance of targeting reward responsiveness and cue-reactive mental imagery in the context of exposure therapies for poker-machine problem gamblers. Article details and access conditions
Reference: Dale, G., Rock, A.J. & Clark, G.I. (2019). Cue-reactive imagery mediates the relationships of reward responsiveness with both cue-reactive urge to gamble and positive affect in poker-machine gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09864-x
SkyCity Entertainment Group recently announced plans for an online casino, to be operated offshore in Malta. SkyCity’s plans, while legally permitted, has prompted Internal Affairs Minister Tracey Martin to call for a change in our law on online gambling, which doesn’t apply to offshore operations.
The current law: Online gambling falls within the definition of “remote interactive gambling” (or RIG), which is currently prohibited under the Gambling Act 2003 (Gambling Act). RIG includes gambling by a person at a distance via a communication device. A communication device refers to a machine or device for communicating at a distance (such as computers, telephones and radios) and utilising any technology (including telecommunication, radiocommunication and broadcasting technology).
This prohibition is intended to primarily deal with gambling that utilises the internet, mobile phone texting or interactive television [continues]. Article available online
Reference: Simpson Grierson. (2019). Is a law change required for online gambling? Resources. Retrieved from https://www.simpsongrierson.com/resources
Abstract: Previous research on gaming disorder (GD) has highlighted key methodological and conceptual hindrances stemming from the heterogeneity of nomenclature and the use of nonstandardized psychometric tools to assess this phenomenon. The recent recognition of GD as an official mental health disorder and behavioral addiction by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) opens up new possibilities to investigate further the psychosocial and mental health implications due to excessive and disordered gaming. However, before further research on GD can be conducted in a reliable way and within a robust cross-cultural context, a valid and reliable standardized psychometric tool to assess the construct as defined by the WHO should be developed. The aim of this study was to develop The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), a brief four-item measure to assess GD and to further explore its psychometric properties. A sample of 236 Chinese (47% male, mean age 19.22 years, SD = 1.57) and 324 British (49.4% male, mean age 26.74 years, SD = 7.88) gamers was recruited online. Construct validity of the DT was examined via factorial validity, nomological validity, alongside convergent and discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was also examined using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale—Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). Finally, reliability indicators involving the Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability coefficients were estimated. Overall, the results indicated that GDT is best conceptualized within a single-factor structure. Additionally, the four items of the GDT are valid, reliable, and proved to be highly suitable for measuring GD within a cross-cultural context. Article available online
Reference: Pontes, H.M., Schivinski, B., Sindermann, C., Mei Li, Becker, B., Min Zhou, Montag, C. (2019). Measurement and conceptualization of gaming disorder according to the World Health Organization framework: the development of the Gaming Disorder Test. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00088-z
[From the introduction]: One explanation for Australia’s world-record gambling spend is cultural preference. From Birdsville to the trenches, a love of the punt has supposedly been central to national identity. The other explanation for why Australians became the world’s biggest gamblers during the 1990s was that the expansion of gambling was a deliberate government policy choice.
Australia was not a highly ranked gambling nation in the 1970s. There was betting at race tracks, at government-¬owned TABs and on lotteries. Sports betting was illegal and although there were poker machines in clubs in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, these were unsophisticated contraptions that could only be played with small coins. Even the first casinos in regional centres were pokies-free.
During the 1980s and early 1990s, state governments became cash-strapped because of the abolition of various taxes (including death and gift duties), and burgeoning demands on health, education and community services. With the exception of resource-rich Western Australia (where pokies are confined to the casino), governments turned to poker machines to help resolve the revenue shortfall. Pokies were introduced into pubs and clubs not in response to public pressure but in spite of it. In Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia the policy change was opposed by a majority of the population. Their governments pressed on regardless. Article available online
Reference: Boyce, J. (2019). The lie of ‘responsible gambling’: Australia’s world-beating gambling addiction and the deception hiding it. The Monthly, (June). Retrieved from https://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2019/june/1559397600/james-boyce/lie-responsible-gambling