Online Gambling among Treatment-Seeking Patients in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Study [Full-text]

Melvyn Zhang, Yi Yang, Song Guo, Chris Cheok, Kim Eng Wong and
Gomathinayagam Kandasami – International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health — Open Access Journal

Abstract: Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have focused on determining the prevalence and the epidemiology of problem gambling arising from online gambling in Western cohorts. There remains a paucity of research looking at the problem of online gambling among Asian individuals. The objectives of the current study are to elucidate the characteristics of online gambling among an Asian cohort and to explore the harm associated with online gambling and the potential mechanisms by which harm associated with online gambling could be minimized.

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Post Traumatic Stress and Gambling Motives [Full text]

Joshua B. Grubbs1, Heather Chapman2, Lauren Milner3, Ian A. Gutierrez2,4, and David F. Bradley2, 5

1Bowling Green State University, 2Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, 3Meridian Behavioral Health Services, 4University of Connecticut, 5Case Western Reserve University

Abstract: Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both crosssectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs about gambling behaviors and unique motivations to gamble. Using two samples—an inpatient sample of U.S. Armed Forces veterans (N = 332) seeking treatment for gambling related problems and a web-sample of gambling adults (N = 881)—we examined these ideas. Results from both samples indicated that post-traumatic stress symptoms were related to positive gambling expectancies and coping motivations for gambling. Additionally, in both samples, positive gambling expectancies were associated with greater coping motivations for gambling. Structural equation models revealed that positive gambling expectancies were consistent predictors of coping motivations for gambling. The findings indicate that post-traumatic stress symptoms are likely associated with unique beliefs about and motivations for gambling behaviors. Given the high comorbidity between symptoms of posttraumatic stress and gambling disorder, these specific relationships are likely of clinical interest in populations seeking treatment for either post-traumatic stress or for problems with gambling behaviors.

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Gamble Much? How to Figure out if You’ve Got a Problem: Get inside the mind of the compulsive gambler [Full text]

Susan Krauss Whitbourne Ph.D.. 

Psychology Today

Abstract: Almost everyone has gambled at some point in life, but as many as 3.5% may have a form of gambling disorder. Psychology’s understanding of gambling disorder continues to evolve. Up until recently, people who we might call compulsive gamblers were regarded as having a disorder of “impulse control.” Psychiatry’s diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV-TR (link is external), placed compulsive gambling, called “pathological gambling,” in the section of disorders that also included kleptomania, pyromania, and trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling). In their revamping of all psychological disorders, in light of new conceptualizations, DSM-5 places “gambling disorder” in a new category of “Non-Substance-Related-Disorders.” Rather than being more similar to people with compulsive behaviors, then, people with gambling disorder now are viewed as more similar to people who have a substance disorder.

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A Functional Analytic Approach to Understanding Disordered Gambling [Subscription access only]

Mark R. Dixon, Alyssa N. Wilson, Jordan Belisle, James B. Schreiber. 

The Psychological Record

Abstract: The Gambling Functional Assessment (GFA) hypothesized four possible maintaining functions of gambling behavior, including social attention, escape from aversive events, access to tangible items, and sensory stimulation. In the years following the GFA’s release, research teams have argued for a revised model of the GFA to account for just two possible functions maintaining gambling behavior (positive and negative reinforcement). In the current study, we examined the extent to which a four-factor gambling functional assessment was possible, sustaining a conceptual and theoretical orientation consistent with a functional behavioral account of gambling. Three hundred and sixty-five recreational and disordered gamblers completed a demographic survey, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and the GFA. An exploratory factor analysis was first conducted to determine GFA functional items that loaded onto a common factor, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine if a four-factor model, consistent with the functional categories of the GFA, provided a good fit for the obtained data. Outcomes supported the model, suggesting that a four-factor functional account of gambling behavior can be obtained. Differing results obtained by separate research teams, however, suggest that more precise research may be needed in the development and analysis of functional instruments for use with gamblers.

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Cite this article as: Dixon, M.R., Wilson, A.N., Belisle, J. et al. Psychol Rec (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-018-0279-y