Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income – open access

Sanacora, R. L., Whiting, S. W., Pilver, C. E., Hoff, R. A., & Potenza, M. N.

Background and aims: Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups.MethodsData from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups.ResultsGreater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents.Discussion and conclusionsThe findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more “disposable income,” may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.

Sanacora, R. L., Whiting, S. W., Pilver, C. E., Hoff, R. A., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.045
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Breaking Bad: Comparing Gambling Harms Among Gamblers and Affected Others

Li, E., Browne, M., Rawat, V., Langham, E., & Rockloff, M.

This article examines gambling harms from both gamblers and affected others’ perspectives. Participants (3076 gamblers and 2129 affected others) completed a retrospective survey that elicited information on harms they experienced from gambling across their lifetime. Their responses were analyzed through testing measurement invariance, estimating item-response theoretic parameters, calculating percentages, confidence intervals, and correlations, as well as regressions. The results indicated large commonalities in the experience of harms reported by gamblers and affected others. Further, gamblers appeared to ‘export’ about half of the harms they experienced to those around them. The findings also provided detailed profiles of evolving harms as problem gambling severity varies.

Li, E., Browne, M., Rawat, V., Langham, E., & Rockloff, M. (2016). Breaking Bad: Comparing Gambling Harms Among Gamblers and Affected Others. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–26. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-016-9632-8

The Relationship Between Gambling Fallacies and Problem Gambling

Leonard, C. A., & Williams, R. J.

The cognitive model of problem gambling posits that erroneous gambling-related fallacies are key in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. However, this contention is based on cross-sectional rather than longitudinal associations between these constructs, and gambling fallacy instruments that may have inflated this associated by their inclusion of problem gambling symptomatology. The current research re-evaluates the relationship between problem gambling and gambling-specific erroneous cognitions in a 5-year longitudinal study of gambling using a psychometrically sound measure of erroneous gambling-related cognitions. The sample used in this study (n = 4,121) was recruited from the general population in Ontario, Canada, and the retention rate over 5 years was exceptionally high (93.9%). The total sample was similar, in age and gender distributions, to the census data at the time of data collection for Canadian adults (18-24 years, n = 265, 55.8% female; 25-44 years, n = 1,667, 56.4% female; 45-64 years, n = 1,731, 55.4% female; 65 + years, n = 458, 44.75% female). Results of both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses confirm that gambling-specific fallacies appear to be etiologically related to the subsequent appearance of problem gambling, but to a weaker degree than previously presumed, and in a bidirectional manner.

Leonard, C. A., & Williams, R. J. (2016). The Relationship Between Gambling Fallacies and Problem Gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. http://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000189

Raising the legal gambling age in Finland: problem gambling prevalence rates in different age groups among past-year gamblers pre- and post-implementation

Nordmyr, J., & Österman, K.
This article reports on the frequency of problem gambling, measured with the Lie/Bet instrument, in different age groups among Finnish past-year gamblers in 2011 (n = 2984) and 2014 (n = 2326). The data highlights the situation before, and three years after, the implementation of a raised minimum age limit for gambling from 15 to 18 years. The difference in problem gambling frequency when comparing all age groups was statistically significant in 2011, but not in 2014. A significantly lower frequency of problem gambling was found among 18–19-year-olds in 2014 (3.4%), compared to 2011 (16.3%). The results regarding problem gambling prevalence among 15–17-year-olds (8.0% in 2011, 0.0% in 2014) are somewhat inconclusive as the number of respondents fulfilling the criteria for problem gambling was zero in 2014, thus affecting the analysis. No statistically significant difference in problem gambling frequency was found among 20–21-year-olds (a group less affected by the policy implementation) – or other older age groups – between the survey years. While the findings should be viewed with caution, they do support recommendations regarding a minimum gambling age of 18 years or higher as an effective harm-minimization measure.
Nordmyr, J., & Österman, K. (2016). Raising the legal gambling age in Finland: problem gambling prevalence rates in different age groups among past-year gamblers pre- and post-implementation. International Gambling Studies, 0(0), 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2016.1207698

Latest Developments in Treatment for Disordered Gambling: Review and Critical Evaluation of Outcome Studies – Open Access

Yakovenko, I., & Hodgins, D. C.

Purpose of review: Over the last decade, treatments for disordered gambling have developed rapidly. The goal of this paper is to review and to critically evaluate the literature published on the treatment of disordered gambling in the past 3 years. Important findings are emphasized and accompanied by the authors’ personal observations on controversial results or hypotheses of interest. Recent findings: Cognitive-behavioral interventions have been evaluated in treatment of Hong Kong Chinese individuals as well as in combination with mindfulness-based approaches. Personalized-feedback interventions have received increased attention, with brief treatments demonstrating overall efficacy. Pharmacological treatments continue to receive only limited support. On the other hand, web-based treatments appear to show promise. Summary: Cognitive-behavioral and brief treatments remain the most empirically supported approaches, but new inventive combinations of treatments such as web-based therapies are emerging. Future research could benefit from diversification of types of treatments evaluated as well as an examination of what is considered “evidence-based.”

Yakovenko, I., & Hodgins, D. C. (2016). Latest Developments in Treatment for Disordered Gambling: Review and Critical Evaluation of Outcome Studies. Current Addiction Reports, 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-016-0110-2

Gambling Disorder in the DSM-5: Opportunities to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment Especially in Substance Use and Homeless Populations – Open Access

Rash, C. J., & Petry, N. M.

Purpose of review: This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions of the gambling disorder (GD) criteria, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the lowered diagnostic threshold. Recent findings: Studies suggest that the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the lowered diagnostic threshold. Overall, prevalence rates will increase modestly with the lowered threshold in community samples of gamblers. However, increases in GD prevalence rates may be more notable in settings that serve individuals at higher risk for gambling problems (e.g., substance abuse treatment clinics and homeless persons). Summary: Changes to the GD diagnostic criteria may lead to increased recognition of gambling problems, particularly in settings that serve high-risk populations. These changes also may necessitate the training of more clinicians in the delivery of efficacious gambling treatments.

Rash, C. J., & Petry, N. M. (2016). Gambling Disorder in the DSM-5: Opportunities to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment Especially in Substance Use and Homeless Populations. Current Addiction Reports, 1–5. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-016-0112-0

Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Okuda, M., Liu, W., Cisewski, J. A., Segura, L., Storr, C. L., & Martins, S. S.

Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

Okuda, M., Liu, W., Cisewski, J. A., Segura, L., Storr, C. L., & Martins, S. S. (2016). Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors. Current Addiction Reports, 1–13. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-016-0108-9