Few empirical studies have examined the relationships between differing regulatory approaches and patterns of gambling behaviors. This article reports on a correlational cross-cultural comparison of differences in the regulatory approaches and gambling behavior among general adult populations in France and Québec, Canada. We drew data from two large population surveys conducted in France and Québec (N=27 653 and N=11 888, respectively). We found diverging and converging aspects of government regulatory policies. Statistical analyses demonstrated significantly higher participation rates and prevalence of ‘assiduous gamblers’ in Québec. In France, among assiduous gamblers, the proportion of moderate-risk and probable pathological gamblers is significantly higher. Future research should examine environmental conditions and varying gambling offerings, as well as gambling regulation, to determine their potential influence on gambling behaviors.