Researchers have documented that problem gambling has affected families. The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate how the gambling behaviors of an individual affected perceived social support of his or her family members and their financial well-being. This study will be based on a cross-sectional survey of 33 family members of gamblers who resided in Orange County, California. The majority of the participants estimated their family member spent an average of $1,000 per week on gambling activities. Asians and first generation immigrants experienced low perceived social support compared to their non-Asians and second and third generation counterparts. Participants who earned less than $15,000, those who rented, and were single scored low on financial well-being scale compared to their counterparts. Study findings have implications for social and behavioral sciences. The findings aimed to help families, communities and helping professionals to have an awareness of the potential harm of problem gambling.
The present study investigated the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling and the potential mediating role of parental psychopathology (problem drinking, drug use problems, and mental health issues). The study comprised 3953 participants (1938 males, 2015 females) recruited from a large-scale Australian community telephone survey of adults retrospectively reporting on parental problem gambling and psychopathology during their childhood. Overall, 4.0% [95%CI 3.0, 5.0] (n = 157) of participants reported paternal problem gambling and 1.7% [95%CI 1.0, 2.0] (n = 68) reported maternal problem gambling. Compared to their peers, participants reporting paternal problem gambling were 5.1 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.7 times more likely to be problem gamblers. Participants reporting maternal problem gambling were 1.7 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.6 times more likely to be problem gamblers. The results revealed that the relationships between paternal-and-participant and maternal-and-participant problem gambling were significant, but that only the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal problem gambling and sociodemographic factors. Paternal problem drinking and maternal drug use problems partially mediated the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling, and fully mediated the relationship between maternal-and-participant problem gambling. In contrast, parental mental health issues failed to significantly mediate the transmission of gambling problems by either parent. When parental problem gambling was the mediator, there was full mediation of the effect between parental psychopathology and offspring problem gambling for fathers but not mothers. Overall, the study highlights the vulnerability of children from problem gambling households and suggests that it would be of value to target prevention and intervention efforts towards this cohort.
Dowling, N. A., Shandley, K., Oldenhof, E., Youssef, G., Thomas, S. A., Frydenberg, E., & Jackson, A. C. (n.d.). The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of parental psychopathology. Addictive Behaviors. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.002
The goal of this study was to improve the common knowledge on the connections between problem gambling and environmental settings. A cross-sectional design was used to compare two types of electronic gambling machine (EGM) users in terms of gamblers’ self-reported behaviours, perceptions, motivations and preferences according to the type of venue they gambled in. Sixty-six volunteers who gambled in a gambling hall containing 335 EGMs were compared to volunteers (n = 143) who gambled in small venues containing either 5 or 10 EGMs. All venues were located in areas with similar socio-economic status. Face-to-face survey-like interviews were conducted on site by trained assistants. Interviews comprised 83 items (fixed response and short open-ended questions). Gamblers’ varied according to the type of venue on (a) socio-demographic variables; (b) correlates of gambling problems; (c) self-reported gambling behaviours, perceptions and motivations; and (d) venue characteristics influencing their choice of venue. Small venue gamblers reported more characteristics associated with problem gambling and are about four times more likely to be associated with problem gambling than gambling hall patrons. Decision-makers should consider the venue specific players’ profiles outlined in this manuscript, and appreciate their possible use in appropriate responsible gambling measures and prevention/treatment programmes.
Sévigny, S., Leclerc, M., Goulet, A., Côté, K., Jacques, C., Ladouceur, R., & Giroux, I. (2016). Electronic gambling machine gamblers’ characteristics vary according to the type of gambling venue: a Canadian study. International Gambling Studies, 0(0), 1–24. http://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2016.1151912
AIMS – This study describes five groups of gamblers and changes in their gambling involvement and gambling problems over four years with a particular focus on whether gambling problems among men and women develop differently within the five groups. DESIGN – The study sample is a subset of participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). Six different clusters of past-year gambling, based on frequency of participation in the nine most common forms of gambling in Sweden (lotteries, horses, number games, sports games, bingo, poker, slot machines, casino games or TV contests) were identified in Two-Way Cluster Analysis after the first wave of data collection in 2008/09. There were 2,508 individuals identified in EP1 (n=5,012) who then also participated in waves EP2 and EP3 and were selected for the present analysis. METHODS – Statistical analysis was done in SPSS 22.0 using Pearson’s Chi-Square test of Independence (or Fisher’s Exact test when the requirements or expected frequency were not met for Pearson’s Test), Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. P-values below 0.05 were regarded as significant. RESULTS – Gambling remains gendered in Sweden. Even though the clusters are based on gambling activities, there are differences between men and women within the clusters as regards the gambling participation patterns. CONCLUSIONS – Men and women gamble differently, but they may still be equals in their total experience of gambling and in relation to how their gambling problems develop. All differences need to be taken into consideration when preventive actions or messages are created.
AIMS – The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking) by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN – Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822) were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484). The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2) was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS – The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74) for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56) for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26) for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23) for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12) for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24) for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39) for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34) for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS – Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Edgren, R., Castrén, S., Jokela, M., & Salonen, A. H. (2016). At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 33(1), 61–80. http://doi.org/10.1515/nsad-2016-0005