Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives

This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject’s (or control’s) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment…

Source: Shultz, S. K., Shaw, M., McCormick, B., Allen, J., & Black, D. W. (2016). Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–11.

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Supporting people with gambling problems to seek help and recover: guidelines for the public

Full text at link.

Funded through a foundation grant for clinical research on gambling, this project aimed to create guidelines to help members of the public assist people with gambling problems.

The guidelines cover:

  • warning signs
  • talking to a person with gambling problems about their concerns
  • dealing with difficulties that may arise during this conversation
  • encouraging help seeking
  • providing support to help the person with gambling problems to change.

The guidelines are based on expert consensus and informed by evidence. They have been developed for promotion to the public as an appropriate way of recognising and responding to problem gambling and could be used in future research.

Source: Bond, K. S., Jorm, A. F., Miller, H. E., Rodda, S. N., Reavley, N. J., Kelly, C. M., & Kitchener, B. A. (2015). Supporting people with gambling problems to seek help and recover. Victoria, Australia: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.

Changes in minors’ gambling on slot machines in Finland after the raising of the minimum legal gambling age from 15 to 18 years: A repeated cross-sectional study

AIM – The legal gambling age in Finland was raised from 15 to 18 years in 2010, but slot machines were given a transition period that ended with the full law coming into effect on 1 July 2011. The widespread accessibility of slot machines and their popularity among youth led us to consider how age limit was enforced in the Finnish gambling monopoly system and to analyse how underage gambling on slot machines changed after the raising of the minimum age.

METHODS – Two nationwide cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 (12–18-year-olds; N=8101; average response rate 42%). The main measure was self-reported six-month prevalence of slot machine use overall and by venue (shops; kiosks; petrol stations; restaurants/cafés; ship travels to Sweden/Estonia; other). Changes from 2011 to 2013 were tested by using the χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. As a reference group only, 18-year-olds were analysed, as they were of legal age to gamble.

Source: Raisamo, S., Warpenius, K., & Rimpelä, A. (2015). Changes in minors’ gambling on slot machines in Finland after the raising of the minimum legal gambling age from 15 to 18 years: A repeated cross-sectional study. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 32(6), 579–590.

DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder: Underlying structure and applicability to specific groups of gamblers

Background and Aims

DSM-5 provides nine diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. All criteria have a pre-assumed equal diagnostic impact and are applied to all individuals and groups in an equal manner. The aims of the study are to analyse the structure underlying the diagnosis and to assess whether DSM-5 is equally applicable to different groups of gamblers.

Methods

Data from the 2009 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse and from a study on slot machine gamblers were used. Item Response Theory analysis was applied to estimate discrimination and severity parameters of the criteria. With the use of Differential Item Functioning analysis, potential criterion biases were analysed. We analysed data from 107 participants from the general population sample and 376 participants from the slot machine gamblers’ sample who answered a 19-item diagnostic questionnaire based on the DSM criteria for gambling disorder.

Source: Sleczka, P., Braun, B., Piontek, D., Bühringer, G., & Kraus, L. (2015). DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder: Underlying structure and applicability to specific groups of gamblers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(4), 226–235.

EGM environments that contribute to excess consumption and harm

Interviews with recent EGM gamblers showed that the social aspect of gambling was important for many, reflecting their choice to gamble in a venue. This was also seen as more exciting than online gambling, due in part to being able to win physical money. In contrast, those who preferred online gambling liked the functionality of it and the ease of being able to gamble at home.

Survey results showed that for the average EGM gambler, the ‘ideal’ environment involves playing on a classic game, with friends, at a club near home, in a relatively quiet place, with a large space to play in, and with cheap food available. In comparison, people experiencing gambling problems tended to be less concerned about where they gamble and whether they socialise with others while gambling.

Source: Rockloff, M., Thorne, H., Goodwin, B., Moskovsky, N., Langham, E., Browne, M., … Rose, J. (2015). EGM environments that contribute to excess consumption and harm. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.

Exploring the Relationship Between Stimulant Use and Gambling in College Students – Online First – Springer

Both gambling and stimulant use are common and can lead to problems on college campuses with consequences that impact the financial, emotional, academic and physical well-being of students. Yet few studies have been conducted to understand the co-occurrence of these conditions and the increased risk factors if any that may exist for gambling and related problems. The present study is among the first to document the co-occurrence of these behaviors in both a random sample of students (N = 4640), and then to explore to what extent stimulant use impacts subsequent gambling and related problems 12 months later in an at-risk sample (N = 199)…

Source: Geisner, I. M., Huh, D., Cronce, J. M., Lostutter, T. W., Kilmer, J., & Larimer, M. E. (2015). Exploring the Relationship Between Stimulant Use and Gambling in College Students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1–16. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9586-2

Gambling content in Facebook games: A common phenomenon?

Some Facebook games are offered by developers who also offer gambling games, possibly indicating that gambling content (GC) could be found in their Facebook games. This study measures the presence of GC in Facebook games and documents their presentation. It verifies whether GC is more present in games offered by developers offering gambling games as well. The 100 most popular Facebook games were played for 10 min and recorded for content analysis purposes. GC was detected and classified into standard gambling simulation, non-standard gambling simulation, and gambling references…

Source: Jacques, C., Fortin-Guichard, D., Bergeron, P.-Y., Boudreault, C., Lévesque, D., & Giroux, I. (2016). Gambling content in Facebook games: A common phenomenon? Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 48–53. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.010